|Frequently Asked Questions About DNA Tribes® SNP Analysis
Updated August 1, 2012. For DNA Tribes® STR testing information, click here.
Q: What previous lab work is needed for DNA Tribes® SNP analysis?
A: DNA Tribes® SNP analysis can be performed using your genome raw data from any of several SNP microarray
tests. If you have raw data from a SNP microarray test, send your genotype file to firstname.lastname@example.org, and
we will be happy to tell you if this can be used for DNA Tribes® SNP analysis.
Q: Does DNA Tribes® perform new lab work for SNP analysis?
A: DNA Tribes® SNP analysis is currently available based on your previous SNP test results and does not yet
include new lab testing. However, we are working towards offering microarray lab processing for our customers in
Q: How long will it take to receive my DNA Tribes® SNP results?
A: Once you submit your raw genotype data by emailing email@example.com, your DNA Tribes® SNP
analysis will be performed and emailed to you in PDF format in the order it was received. Reports will typically be
delivered within 3-5 business days, but please allow up to 5 business days for your report.
Q: What features make DNA Tribes® SNP analysis unique?
A: DNA Tribes® proprietary SNP analysis contains several unique features to complement your prior SNP testing.
More specifically, these features include:
Q: How does admixture analysis differ from total similarity analysis?
A: Your DNA Tribes® SNP report will include both admixture analysis based on the DNA Tribes® proprietary
analysis of world population structure, as well as total similarity analysis that compares your genotype as a whole
to populations in our database.
Admixture analysis estimates the genetic contributions to your genotype from continents and world regions. Each
DNA Tribes® SNP report includes two levels of admixture analysis: first, a more general 7 continental analysis; and
second, a more geographically detailed 21 world region analysis. These regions were identified using a proprietary
multivariate clustering algorithm exclusive to DNA Tribes®.
Total similarity analysis compares your genotype as a whole to each world population in our database. Results
based on the similarity of your genotype to members of that population. For instance, a Member Similarity of 0.7003
for France would indicate your SNP genotype is 70.03% similar to French samples in our database. If your family
origins are in multiple parts of the world, total similarity results can identify one of more places of parental origins or
in some cases geographically intermediate populations where similar genetic mixes have taken place.
Your DNA Tribes® SNP "deep ancestry" admixture and total similarity results can express not only your recent
genealogy, but also more ancient relationships among world populations.
Q: How is DNA Tribes® SNP "deep ancestry" analysis different from genealogical searches to locate family
A: DNA Tribes® SNP analysis emphasizes "deep ancestry," meaning the ancient geographical relationships
among world populations. The analysis includes a broader comparison of your genotype to world genetic structure
that is not limited to a genealogical time frame or to finding individual relatives. For this reason, DNA Tribes® SNP
results are based on fundamental relationships among whole populations (including ancient relationships beyond
the scope of genealogy), rather than family relationships between individual people.
Q: Does DNA Tribes® SNP analysis include medically related information?
A: No. DNA Tribes® SNP analysis is a geographical "deep ancestry" analysis that does not include any medically
Q: How does DNA Tribes® SNP analysis compare to DNA Tribes® 15, 21, and 27 Marker autosomal STR
A: Both DNA Tribes® SNP and DNA Tribes® 15, 21, and 27 Marker STR tests are based on autosomal DNA, which
you inherited from both your maternal and paternal ancestors. However, STR and SNP tests differ based on the
type of genetic markers used (SNP or STR) and the world populations referenced.
At present, STR testing allows a detailed comparison of your genotype to over a thousand world populations,
including many populations for which SNP data are not yet available. In contrast, SNP testing uses relatively new
technology to perform a substantially finer comparison of your DNA to each population based on tens of thousands
of SNP markers. For this reason, DNA Tribes® SNP analysis provides a greater power of exclusion than STR
analysis and can pinpoints results to more specific geographical locations and a smaller number of populations in
most cases. However, the number of reference populations is currently smaller for SNP markers than for STR
markers. (For a listing of currently available SNP populations, see SNP sample reports by clicking here.)
In addition, SNP admixture analysis can express smaller components of geographical ancestry, including smaller
percentages of genealogical admixture (such as Native American ancestry) as well as more ancient relationships
between neighboring and related populations.
These two types of testing can provide complementary information about your genetic ancestry based on
independent data sources. As technologies advance and new data become available, DNA Tribes® aims to
continue to develop cutting edge analysis for both SNP and STR markers.
Q: How can DNA Tribes® SNP identify evidence of Native American ancestry?
A: DNA Tribes® SNP analysis performs Native American ancestry assessment at two levels. First, your continental
zone admixture analysis estimates your percentages of general Native American ancestry. Second, your more
detailed world region admixture analysis estimates your percentages of both Mesoamerican (indigenous
populations from North, Central, and South America) and Arctic ancestry (Inuit and related populations of North
In some cases, Native American ancestry might in part be expressed in smaller percentages of ancestry from
Asian continental zones and regions. In the future, new data might help to clarify Native American genetic
Q: Will DNA Tribes® SNP analysis be expanded in the future to include new populations?
A: As new data become available, they will be included in DNA Tribes® SNP analysis. Part of our efforts will include
inviting participation from DNA Tribes® SNP customers to share their grandparent data for anonymous, aggregated
inclusion in our geographical analysis. This will allow us to begin to "fill in" parts of the world for which few samples
are available, eventually providing a more complete and detailed picture of local genetic relationships.
Q: How can I qualify for a "grandparent info" discount with my DNA Tribes® SNP analysis?
A: We are currently offering a discount towards DNA Tribes® SNP analysis for customers who would like to submit
their genome and grandparent birthplace information (city/region and country) for potential anonymous, aggregated
inclusion in our geographical analysis. Your grandparents do not need to be from the same 4 places to qualify for
the discount. If you do not know birth information for a grandparent, enter "Unknown" in that section of the form.
Maternal grandmother (mother's mother): Maine, United States
Paternal grandfather (father's father): Guangdong, China
Paternal grandmother (father's mother): California, United States
Notes or comments (optional): Family tradition of Cherokee ancestry on father's side.
DNA Tribes® will treat this anonymous grandparent data as strictly private, and your form responses will not affect
your DNA Tribes® SNP report in any way. However, your grandparent information will be submitted for potential
future inclusion in our geographical analysis on a strictly anonymous, aggregated basis. Eventually, this might
allow us to refine our analysis and supplement your results in the future, when sufficient geographical data from
each part of the world are included in our database.
Your "grandparent info" discount can be redeemed either when first ordering your DNA Tribes® SNP analysis by
filling out the Grandparent Info Discount Form and then using the discount order link.
This discount can also be redeemed up to 7 days after your DNA Tribes® SNP analysis is delivered to you by filling
out the Grandparent Info Discount Form and emailing your order number to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Q: Where can I order my DNA Tribes® SNP analysis?
A: Your DNA Tribes® SNP analysis can be ordered (with or without the Grandparent Info discount) at: