How Do Results Look and What do They Mean?

Example Results for a Person of Latino (Hispanic) Ancestry

Comments for this sample individual: These sample results are for a person with Latino (Hispanic) family origins. To view a sample of results in high resolution PDF format, please click here

Part A: Genetic Profile: Your unique genetic profile includes the values for 26 genetic markers distributed throughout your autosomal chromosomes. For each marker (also known as a “locus”) you have two values (“alleles”): one inherited from your father and the other inherited from your mother, for a total of 52 dimensions used to perform your DNA Tribes’ ancestry testing. More specifically, your unique combination of alleles is used to compute high resolution Native Population, Global Population and World Region matches.

Latino (Hispanic) descent Locus Genetic Markers

Comments for this sample individual: At each locus, this individual inherited one allele value from their mother and one from their father. Each allele value is a number representing repeats of a particular genetic sequence. For instance, at locus THO1, this individual has inherited one allele of length 6 (6 repeats) and one allele of length 7 (7 repeats). Because these alleles are passed down independently on separate chromosomes, it would be necessary to test a parent to determine which allele was passed down by which parent. This DNA profile serves as a genetic fingerprint for this person, and this collection of allele values is used to compute this person’s connections to individual populations and World Regions in the DNA Tribes’ reference database.

Part B: High Resolution Native Population Match: DNA Tribes identifies your Top 20 matches in our reference database of more than 900 native populations that have experienced minimal movement and admixture in the last 500 years. Individual population matches do not necessary indicate recent social or cultural affiliation with a particular ethnicity. Instead, the geographical distribution of your Native Population Match results indicates your most likely deep ancestral origins.

DNA matches do not necessarily suggest a recent family ancestor from each country listed and can express the genetic traces of more ancient relationships between populations through shared origins, migrations, and long term trade contacts in each part of the world. For people with mixed ancestry, DNA matches can also identify populations where similar mixing has taken place (such as native populations located near historical trade and migration routes between continents).

Satellite heat markers for Sample results of person with Latino (Hispanic) descent Part A

Key to map with heat markers for sample results of a person with Latino (Hispanic) descent Part A

Comments for this sample individual: The Top 20 Native population matches based on MLI scores for this individual are with Native American and European populations. The listed individual MLI scores do not indicate the percentage of individual’s genetic material attributable to individual populations. Instead, these MLI scores assess the relative likelihood of this person’s genetic make-up occurring in a particular population:

  • For example, the strongest match for this person is with a Chol Maya population, where this individual’s DNA profile is 17,952 times more likely to occur than in the world as a whole. A TribeScore of (0.42) indicates that this person’s MLI score is higher than scores for 42% of Chol Maya individuals; thus, this individual’s genetic make-up is quite common in the Chol Maya population.

  • However, similar DNA profile to our example Latino person can be found in other indigenous populations of the Americas: the MLI score for a Pehuenche population sample from Chile is 7,074, indicating that this example DNA profile is 17,952 / 7,074 = 2.5 times more likely to occur in the Chol Maya population than in the Pehuenche population (based on the ratio of the MLI scores for these two populations). In addition, the TribeScore of (0.04) for Pehuenche indicates that 96% of individuals from this population would have higher MLI scores than the sample individual; hence, this individual’s MLI score is relatively low for this population.

For this example individual, Chol Maya would be the most likely native population of origin among the Native populations included in the DNA Tribes reference database; however, other indigenous populations such as Pehuenche and Yucatan Maya cannot be excluded. In addition to the strong Native American population matches, this example Latino person also has matches with a number of European populations (Spain, Ireland and Norway) in their Top 20. This is consistent with mixed Native American and European ancestry of Latino populations.

Part C: High Resolution Global Population Match: In this section we provide your Top 20 matches in the DNA Tribes database of all populations, including native peoples as well as Diaspora groups that expanded from their homelands and sometimes admixed with other populations in recent history. The geographical distribution of these matches indicates your closest genetic relatives today and the world communities where the genetic material you have inherited is shared.

Satellite heat markers for Sample results of person with Latino (Hispanic) descent Part C

Key to map with heat markers for sample results of a person with Latino (Hispanic)) descent Part C

Comments for this sample individual: The Global matches for this example individual include modern mixed communities throughout the Americas, in which Native Americans have mixed with Europeans (and in some places with Africans) during the past 500 years. For example, this individual’s DNA profile can be found in several modern Mexican and Central American populations at fairly similar frequencies. Global matches do not necessarily mean this individual’s ancestors lived in El Salvador (top match), but rather indicate the places where populations with a similar mixture of ancestry to our example Latino person live today.

The global DNA match scores are substantially higher for this individual than the indigenous Native American MLI scores reported in Part B. For example, this individual’s MLI for El Salvador is 58,883 compared to 17,952 for the Chol Maya population. Thus, this example Latino person’s genetic make-up is 58,883 / 17,952 = 3.3 times more likely to occur in El Salvador than in the Chol Maya population. That is, this individual's combination of genetic material is more common in sampled modern Latin American (Hispanic) populations (e.g., El Salvador) where the mixture of European and Native American peoples has taken place and somewhat less common in unmixed Native American (e.g., Chol Maya) and European (e.g., Norway) populations.

Part D: High Resolution World Region Match World Region matches measure your genetic connections to major genetic World Regions identified by DNA Tribes using proprietary statistical algorithms. Each World Region is comprised of multiple populations that are geographically adjacent and genetically similar.

Satellite heat markers for Sample results of person with Latino (Hispanic) descent Part C

Key to map with heat markers for sample results of a person with Latino (Hispanic) descent Part C

Comments for this sample individual: World Region results provide the most robust assessment of the person’s genetic connections to the world. They can often clarify individual Native and Global population match results. For instance, this sample individual’s DNA profile is most frequent in the Metis-Mestizo World Region (the highest MLI score) and less common in the Mesoamerican World Region (the second highest MLI score). This is consistent with the distribution of this person’s Native and Global population matches in Parts B and C, which are strongest in mixed Native American and Latin American (Diaspora) populations. More precisely, this individual’s DNA profile is most frequent in the mixed ethnicity Metis-Mestizo World Region, where it is 18,828 times more likely to occur than in the world as a whole. This individual’s second highest match is with the unmixed Mesoamerican World Region (MLI of 2,295). Hence, this individual’s genetic make-up is 18,828 / 2,295 = 8.2 times more likely to occur in the mixed Metis-Mestizo World Region than in the unmixed Mesoamerican World Region.

In addition, for this individual substantial MLI scores include other Native American and European World Regions (e.g., Grand Chaco and Iberian respectively). These secondary affiliations indicate that this example Latino DNA profile can also be found with lower likelihood in other World Regions.

Summary Comments: DNA Tribes ancestry test results for this person provide a detailed and comprehensive picture of their Latino ancestry including their closest genetic relatives among European, Native American, and Hispanic Diaspora populations and World Regions.