DNA Tribes Digest for August 2, 2014: A Closer Look at Genetic Variation in East-Central Europe

    This month’s article examines local differences within Europe, focusing on the Central European
    and Balto-Slavic SNP clusters. Notably, these ancestral components are expressed not only in
    East-Central Europe, but also in the Balkan Peninsula, Scandinavia, and the British Isles.

    Results for these two closely interrelated genomic components (clusters) might reflect Europe’s
    long history of maritime links via the Mediterranean Sea (the Central European cluster) and
    trans-continental links via the Eurasian Steppe (the Balto-Slavic cluster).

DNA Tribes Digest for July 2, 2014: Five Continent Core Components in 44 World Regions

    This month’s article features an in depth exploration of how ancestral relationships between
    world populations are expressed by admixture percentages of five continental cores identified by
    the new DNA Tribes® SNP Update.

    Background: Deep Ancestry Expressed in Five Isolated Clusters
    Five Core Components in African Regions
    Five Core Components in European Regions
    Five Core Components in West Asian Regions
    Five Core Components in Indian Subcontinent Regions
    Five Core Components in North Eurasian Regions
    Five Core Components in Asian-Pacific Regions
    Five Core Components in Native American Regions
    Conclusion: Five Core Components in 44 World Regions

DNA Tribes Digest for June 2, 2014: Local Admixture in Northwest Europe Using a Detailed 44 Cluster
SNP Analysis of World Genetic Structure

    This month’s Digest article features a finer analysis of local variation within Northwest Europe,
    providing new insights in the varied migrations and geographical contacts that have shaped the
    genetic structure of the British Isles, Scandinavia, and Western Continental Europe.

    Announcements: DNA Tribes® SNP Update for Summer 2014

DNA Tribes Digest for May 1, 2014: Beyond the River: The Search for Genetic Evidence of Jewish
“Lost Tribes”

    This month’s Digest highlights Jewish related ancestral components in Europe, West Asia, the
    Indian Subcontinent, and Africa. These results are presented so that future DNA studies using
    segment sharing (IBD) analysis can establish the chronology of ancient “deep ancestry” links
    between Jewish and non-Jewish populations around the world.

    Table of Contents:

    Section One: Mideastern Jewish Components in Western Asia
    Section Two: Sephardic-Sicilian Components in Balkan and Atlantic Europe
    Section Three: Ashkenazi Jewish Components in the Caucasus and Indian Subcontinent
    Section Four: Mideastern Jewish and Sephardic-Sicilian Components in Ethiopia

DNA Tribes Digest for April 2, 2014: Ancient Eurasian and African Ancestry in Europe

    This month’s article continues the exploration of ancestral populations described in the recent
    Lazaridis paper, “Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for Present-
    Day Europeans," with a focus on the ancient Middle Eastern and Eurasian migrations that
    shaped the genetic structure of Europe.

    In particular, this Digest article features iterative analyses of non-local genetic components in
    Europe, including ancestral links with Middle Eastern, South Asian (Indian Subcontinent), and
    Native American populations.

DNA Tribes Digest for March 1, 2014: The First Human Diaspora: Basal Eurasians and the Horn of
Africa

    This month’s article explores the Horn of Africa’s links with Africa and Eurasia, in search of
    genetic traces of the first human migrations out of Africa.

    According to the tree model of human expansions described in a recent paper, these early
    migrations involved a Basal Eurasian population that later became ancestral to EEF (“First
    Farmers”) in both Europe and the Middle East. This Digest article features iterative analyses of
    non-local genetic components in the Horn of Africa, where the Basal Eurasians might have first
    split off from ancestral African and Eurasian populations, only later to re-join with Eurasian
    hunter-gatherer populations in the founding of the first agricultural societies.

DNA Tribes Digest for February 1, 2014: Paleolithic Migrations Out of Africa and the First Native
Americans

    This month’s article explores new evidence for shared ancestry between Native Americans,
    Europeans, and Middle Eastern populations based on ancient genome evidence from Siberia.

    Past Digest articles have examined the Siberian related ancestry in Native Americans, as well as
    European and Native American related components in Northeast Asia. This month’s article will
    delve deeper, with a sequential analysis of genetic components that link Paleo-Indians with early
    migrations out of Africa and into Eurasia and the Americas.

DNA Tribes Digest for January 3, 2014: The Mal’ta Genome and the Siberian Heartland of Eurasia

    This month’s article explores early genetic relationships in Siberia, to provide a fuller context for
    DNA results published for a 24,000 year old genome recovered from the Paleolithic Mal’ta
    culture near Lake Baikal.

    In particular, both ancient and modern Siberians express genetic links with the Indian
    Subcontinent, Northeast Europe, Native Americans, and Oceanians. Notably, this ancient Mal’ta
    genome might be related to Ancestral North Eurasian (ANE) populations that influenced the
    genetic structure of the Middle East, Americas, and Europe.

DNA Tribes Digest for December 3, 2013:  Mountains, Seas, and Steppe: Early Geographical
Crossings in Central Europe

    This month’s article explores inter-regional links in Central Europe, including genetic
    components related to Northeast Europe, the Aegean and Balkan Peninsula, and the British
    Isles.

    In particular, the historical background includes a discussion of how newly available ancient DNA
    and segment sharing analysis provide information about the timing of early population
    expansions.

    This chronological data will then be compared to an admixture analysis that makes use of the
    uniquely thorough geographical coverage of autosomal STR data available for Europe. Results
    express how these multiple waves of expansion and long term inter-population contacts have
    shaped the genetic landscape of Central Europe.

DNA Tribes Digest for November 1, 2013: A Dynamic Synthesis: Neolithic and Kurgan Interactions in
Southeastern Europe

    New studies of ancient DNA have identified at least two groups of populations active in
    prehistoric Europe: Neolithic Farmers (related to modern Southeast Europeans) and
    “Kurganized” Pastoralists (in part related to Mesolithic hunting-fishing populations and modern
    Northeast Europeans).  

    This month’s article explores the complex interplay of these cultures in Southeastern Europe
    using autosomal STR data. Results include geographical analysis of Farmer and Pastoralist
    admixture throughout Europe. Results also examine Mediterranean and West Asian genetic
    components in present day populations of Greece, Italy, and the Eastern Danube that might
    reflect traces of ancestral Neolithic Farmer populations.

DNA Tribes Digest for October 1, 2013: Non-Local Genetic Components in Southern India

    This month’s article explores non-local genetic links in Southern India using autosomal STR and
    SNP data. The historical background section highlights the role of maritime trade between Africa
    and India during the Late Harappan transition to more localized, rural forms of society in South
    Asia. In addition, the origins of Austroasiatic and Dravidian languages will be explored in the
    context of recent genetic evidence for the Ancestral South Indian (ASI) component shared
    throughout the Indian Subcontinent.

DNA Tribes Digest for September 1, 2013: Modern Mixed Populations in the Context of World Genetic
Structure (SNP)

    This month’s article explores how present day communities that have migrated and mixed in
    recent history (the last 500 years) fit within the more ancient genetic structure of Africa, Eurasia,
    and the Americas.

    Results feature an MDS analysis of African-American, Caribbean, Latin American, and mixed
    Native American communities in relation to crossroad regions of Africa, the Middle East, and
    Central Eurasia, where trade routes and migration paths have linked continents since early
    periods. This highlights the recurring patterns of inter-regional contact, in which migrating
    communities have linked the many dispersed branches of the human family tree in both ancient
    periods and modern times.

DNA Tribes Digest for August 1, 2013: The First Cities of Sumer and the Role of Early Population
Strata in the Middle East

    This month’s article examines the non-local genetic components of Middle Eastern populations
    based on autosomal SNP and STR data, including an Aegean-like genetic component found
    throughout the Middle East.

    Located at the crossroads of three continents, the Middle East has been an important source
    and recipient of population expansions since early periods. In particular, the historical
    background section emphasizes the demographic processes that began with the Ubaid period of
    Mesopotamia, in which the world’s first urban civilization emerged and potentially reshaped the
    genetic structure of West Eurasia.

DNA Tribes Digest for July 1, 2013: Place of Emergence: The Desert Southwest Genetic Region

    This month’s Digest article features an analysis of Native American genetic relationships in the
    Desert Southwest region that includes tribal populations living in the Southwestern United States
    and Western Mexico.

    This Digest article also include new STR populations added for July 2013, as well as updates for
    DNA Tribes world region analysis and the Global Survey of world genetic structure.

DNA Tribes Digest for June 1, 2013: Eurasian and Oceanian Ancestry in the Malay Archipelago

    This month’s article features an analysis of the non-local genetic components in Island
    Southeast Asia, including ancestral links with both Eurasian and Oceanian populations.  

    In particular, the Historical Background discusses archaeological evidence of possible links
    between Thailand and Siberia during the Bronze Age.  This might reflect contacts (direct or
    indirect) with early migratory populations that transmitted metallurgical technology throughout
    Eurasia during this period, stimulating the development of new local cultures in Southeast Asia.

DNA Tribes Digest for May 1, 2013: Visualizing World Genetic Relationships using Multi-Dimensional
Scaling (MDS) (Part Two)

    This month’s article continues a two-part “big picture” exploration of world genetic relationships
    using SNP based Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), including a detailed analysis of genetic
    continuity between regions of Asia and the indigenous populations of the Americas.

    For instance, to understand relationships in a part of the world as complex as South Asia, it is
    necessary to examine the broader inter-regional relationships with West Asia, Siberia, and East
    Asia. Also emphasized in this article are South Asian genetic relationships with Oceania that
    might reflect early coastal and maritime migrations via the Indian Ocean.

DNA Tribes Digest for April 2, 2013: Visualizing World Genetic Relationships using Multi-Dimensional
Scaling (MDS) (Part One)

    This month’s article begins a two-part “big picture” exploration of world genetic relationships
    using Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). This big picture view includes the genetic similarity
    between West Asian and European populations and the global genetic continuum linking
    populations of Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and the Americas.

    The last section of this month’s article will also in particular examine whether present day
    Basques and Sardinians might provide clues about the spread of early Indo-European
    languages in the Mediterranean.

DNA Tribes Digest for March 2, 2013: Bantu Languages and the African Classical Age

    This month’s article explores the emergence of new African cultures during the Iron Age, when
    the Bantu Migrations reshaped the cultural landscape of Sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic results
    include: first, autosomal STR analysis of regional genetic links in Tropical West Africa; and
    second, autosomal SNP analysis of the genetic components expressed in present day Bantu
    speaking populations throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.


DNA Tribes Digest for February 1, 2013: Ramesses III and African Ancestry in the 20th Dynasty of New
Kingdom Egypt

    This month’s article features a geographical analysis of autosomal DNA from two ancient
    individuals: the pharaoh Ramesses III and another individual (possibly Ramesses III's son
    Pentawer), who lived more than 3,000 years ago during the 20th Dynasty of Egypt (during the
    Bronze-Iron Age transition).

    A previous issue of DNA Tribes® Digest identified African related ancestry for King Tut and other
    royal mummies from the Amarna Period. In this issue, results indicate that the later pharaoh
    Ramesses III also inherited alleles that are most frequent in present day populations of Sub-
    Saharan Africa. This provides additional, independent evidence of Sub-Saharan African
    ancestry (possibly among several ancestral components) for pharaonic families of ancient Egypt.

DNA Tribes Digest for January 2, 2013: Evidence for Early Migrations to Europe from West Asia and
Siberia (STR)

    This month’s feature article will explore genetic evidence for the origins of European populations,
    based on a detailed comparison to neighboring world regions using autosomal STR data.

    In particular, this analysis will explore evidence for early migrations to Europe from West Asia
    (including Anatolia and the East Mediterranean) and Siberia (including early relatives of Native
    Americans). The background section highlights the possible role of mixed populations that
    emerged near the Balkan Peninsula during the Neolithic period, which might have included early
    speakers of the Indo-European languages that later spread throughout Europe.

DNA Tribes Digest for December 1, 2012: Genetic Evidence for Multiple Waves of Migration to the
Americas (STR and SNP)

    This month’s article explores the origins of Native American populations based on autosomal
    STR and SNP data. This analysis will include genetic evidence for multiple waves of migration
    from Siberia, as well as the role of copper using Mound Builder societies in integrating Paleo-
    Indian and Arctic related populations in Eastern North America.

DNA Tribes Digest for November 1, 2012: Genetic Evidence for Two Indo-European Expansion Routes
in Asia (STR and SNP)

    This month’s article explores genetic evidence for two routes of West Eurasian expansions into
    Asia: (1) Southern expansions through West Asia reaching the Indian Subcontinent (possibly
    related to the larger satem group of Indo-European languages in Asia); and (2) Northern
    expansions through the Eurasian Steppe into Siberia and the Tarim Basin (possibly related to
    the extinct Tocharian languages).

DNA Tribes Digest for October 1, 2012: Genetic Links in Eastern Europe (STR and SNP)

    This month feature article explores genetic links in Eastern Europe based on both autosomal
    STR and SNP data. The historical background emphasizes the possible role of Copper Age and
    Bronze Age agricultural expansions in shaping Eastern European genetic structure. In particular,
    the analysis highlights periods of early population growth based on farming and pastoralism, as
    well as migrations and dispersals during periods of climate change.

DNA Tribes Digest for September 1, 2012: Genetic Links in the East Mediterranean (STR and SNP)

    This month’s article includes genetic analysis of the East Mediterranean (Levant) based on
    autosomal STR and SNP data. The historical background highlights two early periods: the
    Copper Age and the Bronze Age, when semi-migratory traders and pastoralists carried new
    ideas along trade networks linking the Southern Levant and North Euphrates. Migrations during
    these periods shaped the Bronze Age populations of Canaan, which became the common
    ancestors of later cultures of the East Mediterranean.

DNA Tribes Digest for August 1, 2012: Celtic Language Origins and Geographical Links in Northwest
Europe (SNP and STR)

    This month’s article includes a two part genetic analysis of Northwest Europe based on
    autosomal SNP and STR data. First, SNP analysis will focus on possible genetic traces of Proto-
    Celtic migrations to Western Europe. Second, STR analysis will explore inter-regional links
    related to contacts between Celtic speaking populations during the Iron Age.

    Announcements: SNP Update for August 2012.

DNA Tribes Digest for July 1, 2012: Genetic Links in the Iberian Peninsula (STR and SNP)

    This month’s article explores deeper genetic links in the Iberian Peninsula, including long
    distance (and possibly more ancient) links with populations outside of the West Mediterranean.

    Results include a discussion of genetic links with North Africa and Southeastern Europe, possibly
    related to early Neolithic and Copper Age cultures of the Balkan Peninsula.  

DNA Tribes Digest for June 1, 2012: The Indigenous Gran Chaco Region of South America (STR);
Non-Local Components of European Regions (SNP)

    This month’s issue features two articles. The first article examines genetic relationships of the
    indigenous Gran Chaco region of South America based on autosomal STR data.  The
    second article includes a multi-layered analysis of European regions based on autosomal SNP
    data, to identify long distance genetic relationships underlying the local regional structure of
    Europe, the Near East, and South Asia.

DNA Tribes Digest for May 1, 2012: Early Links between Europe and the Caucasus (SNP)

    This month’s feature article explores the complex genetic landscape near the Caucasus
    Mountains. In the ancient world, this region was associated with the early development of
    metallurgy.  To illuminate this little studied region, our article discusses early contacts linking the
    Caucasus Mountains with Europe and the Near East, based on the archaeologist Evgeny
    Chernykh’s analysis of early Eurasian metallurgy during the Copper Age and Bronze Age.

DNA Tribes Digest for April 2, 2012: Genetic Links in the Indus Valley (STR and SNP)

    This month’s feature article explores genetic links in the Indus Valley, the location of the Bronze
    Age Harappan Civilization. The historical background section includes a discussion of emerging
    new models of South Asian prehistory. This new research challenges the traditional academic
    theory of a "Vedic invasion"  from outside of India, and suggests instead local continuity in South
    Asia dating to the expansion of Neolithic cultures from West Asia.

    Announcements: SNP Update for Spring 2012.

DNA Tribes® SNP Admixture Results by Population (Updated March 12, 2012)

    A comprehensive analysis of world populations based on the continental and regional admixture
    components used in DNA Tribes® SNP analysis (separate from 15, 21, and 27 Marker STR
    based tests; for STR based analysis, see our Global Survey).

DNA Tribes Digest for March 1, 2012: Genetic Links and Language Expansions in Eastern Africa (STR
and SNP)

    This month’s feature article explores genetic links in two parts of Eastern Africa: the Horn of
    Africa and African Great Lakes. These regions near the Rift Valley and Red Sea are home to
    several ethnic groups and have been shaped by several language expansions.

DNA Tribes Digest for February 1, 2012: The North African Region (STR and SNP)

    This month’s article explores genetic relationships of North African populations. This includes two
    separate analyses (autosomal STR and autosomal SNP), each providing an independent source
    of information about genetic links in this part of the world.

DNA Tribes Digest for January 1, 2012: Last of the Amarna Pharaohs: King Tut and His Relatives

    This month’s article features an analysis of several mummies, including the famous King Tut and
    his relatives. These individuals lived in a unique time more than three thousand years ago: the
    “Amarna period,” which has left a vivid archaeological record of life in pharaonic Egypt.

DNA Tribes Digest for December 1, 2011: Armenian Populations of the Transcaucasus (STR and SNP)

    This month’s feature article explores genetic relationships of Armenian populations of the
    Transcaucasus. This will include two separate analyses (autosomal STR and autosomal SNP),
    each providing an independent source of information about genetic links in this part of the world.

    Announcements: New STR Populations for December 2011

DNA Tribes Digest for November 1, 2011: The Norse Sub-Region (STR); SNP Update

    This month’s feature article explores genetic relationships of the Norse sub-region of Europe,
    which includes Scandinavian populations of present day Norway, Denmark and Sweden.

    Also included with this Digest issue is updated continental and regional admixture analysis based
    on new SNP populations incorporated in DNA Tribes® SNP analysis.

DNA Tribes Digest for October 1, 2011: The Salishan Region (STR); Siberia and Central Asia (SNP)

    This month’s issue features two articles based on two different types of analysis. The first article,
    STR Analysis of the Salishan Region,” explores genetic relationships of the North American
    Pacific Northwest based on autosomal STR data.

    The second article, “SNP Analysis of Siberia and Central Asia,” explores possible traces of the  
    Central Asian Oxus and Tarim Civilizations based on autosomal SNP data.

DNA Tribes Digest for September 1, 2011: The Ojibwa Region (STR); Gradual Transitions between
Europe, the Middle East and North Asia (SNP)

    This month’s issue features two articles based on two different types of analysis. The first article,
    “STR Analysis of the Ojibwa World Region,” explores genetic relationships of the Ojibwa world
    region based on autosomal STR data.

    The second article, “Gradual Transitions between Europe, the Middle East and North Asia,”
    highlights the genetic continuity between these continental zones based on our current SNP
    database.

DNA Tribes Digest for August 1, 2011: Genetic Links between Three SNP Based Regions in Europe

    This month’s article features a mixture analysis of European populations based on genetic
    regions identified by DNA Tribes® SNP as of August 2011. This will highlight the relationships
    between three major European genetic groupings (Atlantic European, Baltic-Urals, and
    Caucasus-Anatolian) and neighboring parts of the world (such as the North African, Arabian,
    and Siberian regions).

    Announcements: DNA Tribes® SNP Update for August 2011

DNA Tribes Digest for June 27, 2011: The North Amerindian Genetic Region

    This month’s article explores geographical relationships of the North Amerindian genetic region.
    This genetic region characterizes indigenous populations living near the Great Plains and
    Mississippi River, including tribal nations of the Eastern United States and First Nations living in
    neighboring parts of Canada.

    Announcements: New Populations for June 2011

DNA Tribes Digest for May 31, 2011: The Athabaskan Region of North America

    This month’s article explores geographical relationships of the Athabaskan genetic region. This
    region characterizes indigenous Navajo and Apache peoples of the Southwestern United States,
    as well as linguistically related First Nations of Western Canada and Alaska.

DNA Tribes Digest for April 29, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Greek Sub-Region

    This month's feature article will update our analysis of the Greek sub-region based on more
    detailed sub-regional divisions in Europe.

DNA Tribes Digest for March 31, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Germanic Sub-Region

    This month’s feature article will update our analysis of the Germanic sub-region based on more
    detailed sub-regional divisions in Europe.


DNA Tribes Digest for February 28, 2011: The Horn of Africa World Region

    This month’s feature article explores the genetic relationships of populations in the Horn of
    Africa. This region includes modern day Sudan and Somalia, located along the early trade
    routes linking the civilizations of Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, the Indus Valley, and
    Mesopotamia.

    Announcements: Introducing DNA Tribes® SNP Analysis.

DNA Tribes Digest for January 31, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Balkan Sub-Region

    This month’s feature article updates our analysis of the Balkan sub-region based on more
    detailed genetic divisions presently identified by DNA Tribes® Europa analysis.

    Announcements: New Populations for January 2011.

DNA Tribes Digest for December 31, 2010: An Updated Analysis of the Portuguese Sub-Region

    This month's article updates our analysis of the Portuguese sub-region based on more detailed
    genetic divisions within Europe.

DNA Tribes Digest for November 30, 2010: An Updated Analysis of the Italian Sub-Region

    This month’s feature article will update our analysis of the Italian sub-region based on more
    detailed genetic divisions within Europe.

DNA Tribes Digest for October 28, 2010: Georgia and the Caucasus Mountains

    This month’s issue will explore genetic relationships in the Caucasus Mountains, in particular
    looking at the nation of Georgia. In ancient times, these mountains divided the  urban
    civilizations of Southwest Asia from the wilder Eurasian steppes.

DNA Tribes Digest for September 30, 2010: Gallia Belgica: The Belgic Sub-Region of Europe

    This month’s feature article will examine the Belgic sub-region, which includes populations of the
    modern “Benelux” nations (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) and northern parts of
    France, lands sometimes described as the Low Countries.

DNA Tribes Digest for August 31, 2010: A Closer Look at the Celtic Sub-Region of Europe

    This month’s feature article will re-examine Celtic genetic relationships based on more detailed
    sub-regional definitions in Northwest Europe. This will also include a speculative discussion of
    the legendary Danann and Milesian dynasties in relation to Bronze Age archaeology.

    Announcements: New Populations for August 2010; New Add-On Options.

DNA Tribes Digest for July 30, 2010: Romani Links to Europe and South Asia

    This issue’s feature will explore genetic relationships between Romani (also known as European
    Gypsies) and other populations of Europe and Asia.

DNA Tribes Digest for June 30, 2010: Two Magyars: Genetic Contributions to Hungary and Székely

    This month’s feature article focuses on two Magyar (Hungarian) populations: the general
    population of Hungary and the Székely (Szekler), thought to be descended from Hunnish
    warriors that joined with the Magyar military confederation in Europe.

DNA Tribes Digest for May 31, 2010: Kurgan Riddles: The Thracian Sub-Region of Europe

    This month’s feature article focuses on the Thracian sub-region of Europe, which shares genetic
    characteristics not only with neighboring European regions, but also with more geographically
    distant South Asian populations.

    Announcements: New 27-Marker Test; New Populations added April 30, 2010.

DNA Tribes Digest for March 31, 2010: Europe, the Near East, and India: Macro Relationships in West
Eurasia

    This month's feature article focuses on large scale (macro) relationships between European,
    Near Eastern, and South Asian populations. These lands once included the range of the extinct
    Neanderthal hominids. Today, West Eurasia is home to a group of related regional populations
    that share genetic characteristics, perhaps dating to the earliest human expansions from Africa.

DNA Tribes Digest for February 28, 2010: Shores of the Sahara: Genetic Contributions to the Sahelian
Genetic Region  

    This month’s feature article focuses on the Sahelian genetic region along the borderlands
    between the Sahara Desert and tropical forest zone.  It was here that many diverse and
    influential African cultures have emerged, such as the Mali Empire of Mansa Musa, who awed
    Egypt and Arabia with the wealth of his caravan and established of the famous University of
    Timbuktu.

DNA Tribes Digest for January 29, 2010: Footprints of the Indo-Europeans: Basic Genetic
Contributions in Southwest Asia

    Individual populations studied include: Turkey (general); Greek (Cyprus); Syria; Eastern
    Anatolia, Turkey; Georgia; Kurdish (Iraq); Arab (Iraq); Iran; and Baloch (Pakistan).

DNA Tribes Digest for December 29, 2009: Generals of the Steppes: Basic Genetic Contributions in
Tungusic, Mongolic, and Turkic Populations

    Individual populations studied include: Hazara; Uzbek; Kazakh; Uyghur; Altaian-Kizhi; Tuva;
    Xiongnu (early Mongolian burial site); Mongolia; Buryat; Khamnigan Mongol; East Mongolian
    (Inner Mongolia); and Evenk (Harbin, China).

DNA Tribes Digest for November 30, 2009: Old Siberia: Basic Genetic Contributions in the European
and Siberian Taiga

    Forward: The Northern Frontier Lands of Eurasia
    Europe and the Urals: Finns, Mari, and Bashkir
    Near the Great Yenisei River: Khakas, Tofalar, and Soyot
    Newcomers to Far Eastern Siberia: Yakut and Evenki
    Summary and Conclusion

DNA Tribes Digest for October 31, 2009: Refuge of Sages and Outlaws: Basic Genetic Contributions
near the Hindu Kush

    Individual populations near the Hindu Kush mountain range, including: Afghanistan; Gujarat,
    India; Kashmiri Muslims; Northern Pakistan; Pakistan; and Punjab, India.

DNA Tribes Digest for August 29, 2009: Old Europes: Genetic Evidence of Indo-Europeans and
Substrates in the West (Part Two)

    Atlantic Megalith Builders: Basque and North African Substrates
    Near Eastern Farmers: Mesopotamian and Levantine Substrates
    Northern Hunters, Fishers and Herders: Urals, Finnic, and American Indian Substrates
    Links to Asia: Indian and Tibetan Substrates
    Summary of Contributions

DNA Tribes Digest for July 29, 2009: Old Europes: Genetic Evidence of Indo-Europeans and
Substrates in the West (Part One)

    Native Language Families of Europe
    Identification of the Central Indo-European (CIE) Genetic Zone
    Central Indo-European (CIE) Genetic Contributions in Europe

DNA Tribes Digest for June 27, 2009: Genetic Relationships in Mesoamerica

    Seeds of Mesoamerican Civilization: the Mayan Region
    Empire of the Aztecs: the Mexican Region
    Bridge to the South: the Central American Region

DNA Tribes Digest for May 30, 2009: Genetic Relationships among South American Indians  

    At the Ends of the Earth: the Patagonian Region
    Eden of the Americas: the Amazonian Region
    Mountain Backbone of South America: the Andean Region

DNA Tribes Digest for April 30, 2009: Genetic Relationships along the Pacific Rim of Asia

    The Japanese Region
    The Ami of Taiwan
    The Atayal of Taiwan
    The Philippines
    The Chamoru of Guam

DNA Tribes Digest for March 28, 2009: Genetic Relationships in Southern Europe  

    Sea of the Hellenes: the Greek Europa Sub-Region
    Lands of the Renaissance: the Italian Europa Sub-Region
    Refuge of the Iberians: the Spanish Europa Sub-Region
    Euskal Herria: the Basque Europa Sub-Region
    Beyond the Pillars of Hercules: the Portuguese Europa Sub-Region

DNA Tribes Digest for February 28, 2009: Genetic Relationships in Africa  

    Kingdom of the Nile: Egypt
    Church of Alexandria: Egyptian Copts
    Heirs of Kush and Nubia: Sudan
    Horn of Africa: Somalia
    Lands of the Bantu: the Southern African Genetic Region
    Facing the Atlantic: the West African Genetic Region
    Place of Sunset: the North African Genetic Region
    Oracle of the Pharaohs: Siwa Oasis

DNA Tribes Digest for January 31, 2009: Patterns of Gene Flow through the Coastal Silk Routes

    Middle Kingdom: the South Chinese Genetic Region
    A Union of Mountain and Sea: the Southeast Asian Genetic Region
    The Great Navigators: the Malay Archipelago Genetic Region
    At the Edge of East Asia: the Eastern India Genetic Region
    Home of the Dravidians: the South India Genetic Region
    Desert of the Bedouin: the Arabian Genetic Region
    Cradle of Humanity: the East African Genetic Region

DNA Tribes Digest for December 26, 2008: Patterns of Gene Flow through the Inland Silk Routes

    Birthplace of the West: the Aegean Genetic Region
    Eastern Shores of the Mediterranean: the Levantine Genetic Region
    Between the Rivers: the Mesopotamian Genetic Region
    Land of the Nobles: the North India Genetic Region
    Heirs of the Tocharians: the Uyghur of the Tarim Basin
    At the Roof of the World: the Tibetan Genetic Region
    All Roads Lead to Cathay: the North Chinese Genetic Region  

DNA Tribes Digest for November 28, 2008: Genetic Relationships in Northern Europe

    Where Earth Meets Sky: The Altaian Genetic Region
    Legacy of the Scythians: The Russian Europa Sub-Region
    Western Peoples of the Taiga: The Finno-Ugrian Europa Sub-Region
    Birthplace of the Slavs: The Polish Europa Sub-Region
    Old Europe: The Balkan Europa Sub-Region
    At the Heart of Central Europe: The Germanic Europa Sub-Region
    Peoples of the North Sea: The Norse Europa Sub-Region
    Isles of the Setting Sun: The Celtic Europa Sub-Region

DNA Tribes Digest for October 25, 2008: The Arctic Connection  

    Genetic Regions and Language Families of Siberia
    Estimated Genetic Contributions to the Arctic Genetic Region
    Estimated Arctic Contributions to American Indians
    Estimated Genetic Contributions to North American Indians

DNA Tribes Digest for September 27, 2008: Exploring Ancestry in the South Seas  

    This month's feature article is "Exploring Ancestry in the South Seas," where genetic
    relationships in Madagascar, Australia, East Timor, and Polynesia are investigated.

DNA Tribes Digest for August 29, 2008: Who are the Americans?  

    The first issue's feature article "Who are the Americans?" examines the genetic composition of
    Caucasian and African-American populations in the United States and how it relates to global
    genetic patterns and the history of North America.

    Fifty Canadians from Four Ethnic/Racial Groups: Individuals within every population exhibit a
    variety of genetic affiliations. To view world region analysis for fifty individuals drawn from each
    of four North American populations, select a link below. Each study is a large PDF approximately
    10 MB in size. If a file does not open, right-click the link and select "Save Link As" to save the file
    and open on your desktop. (Published May 10, 2007):

    Fifty Black Canadians
    Fifty Caucasian Canadians
    Fifty East Asian Canadians
    Fifty East Indian Canadians

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Further Reading

To provide a fuller context for your personal DNA match results, these articles discuss topics related
to world genetic structure and relationships.

A New Genetic Map of Interconnected World Regions: To read a detailed overview of  DNA
Tribes autosomal STR analysis,
click here. (Updated July 1, 2013)

DNA Tribes Digest: Each issue of DNA Tribes Digest explores an aspect of world genetic
relationships. New Digest articles are published on an ongoing basis. For a free Digest subscription,
click "Subscribe Now" below: