|DNA Tribes Digest for July 2, 2014: Five Continent Core Components in 44 World Regions
This month’s article features an in depth exploration of how ancestral relationships between
world populations are expressed by admixture percentages of five continental cores identified by
the new DNA Tribes® SNP Update.
Background: Deep Ancestry Expressed in Five Isolated Clusters
Five Core Components in African Regions
Five Core Components in European Regions
Five Core Components in West Asian Regions
Five Core Components in Indian Subcontinent Regions
Five Core Components in North Eurasian Regions
Five Core Components in Asian-Pacific Regions
Five Core Components in Native American Regions
Conclusion: Five Core Components in 44 World Regions
DNA Tribes Digest for June 2, 2014: Local Admixture in Northwest Europe Using a Detailed 44 Cluster
SNP Analysis of World Genetic Structure
This month’s Digest article features a finer analysis of local variation within Northwest Europe,
providing new insights in the varied migrations and geographical contacts that have shaped the
genetic structure of the British Isles, Scandinavia, and Western Continental Europe.
Announcements: DNA Tribes® SNP Update for Summer 2014
DNA Tribes Digest for May 1, 2014: Beyond the River: The Search for Genetic Evidence of Jewish
This month’s Digest highlights Jewish related ancestral components in Europe, West Asia, the
Indian Subcontinent, and Africa. These results are presented so that future DNA studies using
segment sharing (IBD) analysis can establish the chronology of ancient “deep ancestry” links
between Jewish and non-Jewish populations around the world.
Table of Contents:
Section One: Mideastern Jewish Components in Western Asia
Section Two: Sephardic-Sicilian Components in Balkan and Atlantic Europe
Section Three: Ashkenazi Jewish Components in the Caucasus and Indian Subcontinent
Section Four: Mideastern Jewish and Sephardic-Sicilian Components in Ethiopia
DNA Tribes Digest for April 2, 2014: Ancient Eurasian and African Ancestry in Europe
This month’s article continues the exploration of ancestral populations described in the recent
Lazaridis paper, “Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for Present-
Day Europeans," with a focus on the ancient Middle Eastern and Eurasian migrations that
shaped the genetic structure of Europe.
In particular, this Digest article features iterative analyses of non-local genetic components in
Europe, including ancestral links with Middle Eastern, South Asian (Indian Subcontinent), and
Native American populations.
DNA Tribes Digest for March 1, 2014: The First Human Diaspora: Basal Eurasians and the Horn of
This month’s article explores the Horn of Africa’s links with Africa and Eurasia, in search of
genetic traces of the first human migrations out of Africa.
According to the tree model of human expansions described in a recent paper, these early
migrations involved a Basal Eurasian population that later became ancestral to EEF (“First
Farmers”) in both Europe and the Middle East. This Digest article features iterative analyses of
non-local genetic components in the Horn of Africa, where the Basal Eurasians might have first
split off from ancestral African and Eurasian populations, only later to re-join with Eurasian
hunter-gatherer populations in the founding of the first agricultural societies.
DNA Tribes Digest for February 1, 2014: Paleolithic Migrations Out of Africa and the First Native
This month’s article explores new evidence for shared ancestry between Native Americans,
Europeans, and Middle Eastern populations based on ancient genome evidence from Siberia.
Past Digest articles have examined the Siberian related ancestry in Native Americans, as well as
European and Native American related components in Northeast Asia. This month’s article will
delve deeper, with a sequential analysis of genetic components that link Paleo-Indians with early
migrations out of Africa and into Eurasia and the Americas.
DNA Tribes Digest for January 3, 2014: The Mal’ta Genome and the Siberian Heartland of Eurasia
This month’s article explores early genetic relationships in Siberia, to provide a fuller context for
DNA results published for a 24,000 year old genome recovered from the Paleolithic Mal’ta
culture near Lake Baikal.
In particular, both ancient and modern Siberians express genetic links with the Indian
Subcontinent, Northeast Europe, Native Americans, and Oceanians. Notably, this ancient Mal’ta
genome might be related to Ancestral North Eurasian (ANE) populations that influenced the
genetic structure of the Middle East, Americas, and Europe.
DNA Tribes Digest for December 3, 2013: Mountains, Seas, and Steppe: Early Geographical
Crossings in Central Europe
This month’s article explores inter-regional links in Central Europe, including genetic
components related to Northeast Europe, the Aegean and Balkan Peninsula, and the British
In particular, the historical background includes a discussion of how newly available ancient DNA
and segment sharing analysis provide information about the timing of early population
This chronological data will then be compared to an admixture analysis that makes use of the
uniquely thorough geographical coverage of autosomal STR data available for Europe. Results
express how these multiple waves of expansion and long term inter-population contacts have
shaped the genetic landscape of Central Europe.
DNA Tribes Digest for November 1, 2013: A Dynamic Synthesis: Neolithic and Kurgan Interactions in
New studies of ancient DNA have identified at least two groups of populations active in
prehistoric Europe: Neolithic Farmers (related to modern Southeast Europeans) and
“Kurganized” Pastoralists (in part related to Mesolithic hunting-fishing populations and modern
This month’s article explores the complex interplay of these cultures in Southeastern Europe
using autosomal STR data. Results include geographical analysis of Farmer and Pastoralist
admixture throughout Europe. Results also examine Mediterranean and West Asian genetic
components in present day populations of Greece, Italy, and the Eastern Danube that might
reflect traces of ancestral Neolithic Farmer populations.
DNA Tribes Digest for October 1, 2013: Non-Local Genetic Components in Southern India
This month’s article explores non-local genetic links in Southern India using autosomal STR and
SNP data. The historical background section highlights the role of maritime trade between Africa
and India during the Late Harappan transition to more localized, rural forms of society in South
Asia. In addition, the origins of Austroasiatic and Dravidian languages will be explored in the
context of recent genetic evidence for the Ancestral South Indian (ASI) component shared
throughout the Indian Subcontinent.
DNA Tribes Digest for September 1, 2013: Modern Mixed Populations in the Context of World Genetic
This month’s article explores how present day communities that have migrated and mixed in
recent history (the last 500 years) fit within the more ancient genetic structure of Africa, Eurasia,
and the Americas.
Results feature an MDS analysis of African-American, Caribbean, Latin American, and mixed
Native American communities in relation to crossroad regions of Africa, the Middle East, and
Central Eurasia, where trade routes and migration paths have linked continents since early
periods. This highlights the recurring patterns of inter-regional contact, in which migrating
communities have linked the many dispersed branches of the human family tree in both ancient
periods and modern times.
DNA Tribes Digest for August 1, 2013: The First Cities of Sumer and the Role of Early Population
Strata in the Middle East
This month’s article examines the non-local genetic components of Middle Eastern populations
based on autosomal SNP and STR data, including an Aegean-like genetic component found
throughout the Middle East.
Located at the crossroads of three continents, the Middle East has been an important source
and recipient of population expansions since early periods. In particular, the historical
background section emphasizes the demographic processes that began with the Ubaid period of
Mesopotamia, in which the world’s first urban civilization emerged and potentially reshaped the
genetic structure of West Eurasia.
DNA Tribes Digest for July 1, 2013: Place of Emergence: The Desert Southwest Genetic Region
This month’s Digest article features an analysis of Native American genetic relationships in the
Desert Southwest region that includes tribal populations living in the Southwestern United States
and Western Mexico.
This Digest article also include new STR populations added for July 2013, as well as updates for
DNA Tribes world region analysis and the Global Survey of world genetic structure.
DNA Tribes Digest for June 1, 2013: Eurasian and Oceanian Ancestry in the Malay Archipelago
This month’s article features an analysis of the non-local genetic components in Island
Southeast Asia, including ancestral links with both Eurasian and Oceanian populations.
In particular, the Historical Background discusses archaeological evidence of possible links
between Thailand and Siberia during the Bronze Age. This might reflect contacts (direct or
indirect) with early migratory populations that transmitted metallurgical technology throughout
Eurasia during this period, stimulating the development of new local cultures in Southeast Asia.
DNA Tribes Digest for May 1, 2013: Visualizing World Genetic Relationships using Multi-Dimensional
Scaling (MDS) (Part Two)
This month’s article continues a two-part “big picture” exploration of world genetic relationships
using SNP based Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), including a detailed analysis of genetic
continuity between regions of Asia and the indigenous populations of the Americas.
For instance, to understand relationships in a part of the world as complex as South Asia, it is
necessary to examine the broader inter-regional relationships with West Asia, Siberia, and East
Asia. Also emphasized in this article are South Asian genetic relationships with Oceania that
might reflect early coastal and maritime migrations via the Indian Ocean.
DNA Tribes Digest for April 2, 2013: Visualizing World Genetic Relationships using Multi-Dimensional
Scaling (MDS) (Part One)
This month’s article begins a two-part “big picture” exploration of world genetic relationships
using Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). This big picture view includes the genetic similarity
between West Asian and European populations and the global genetic continuum linking
populations of Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and the Americas.
The last section of this month’s article will also in particular examine whether present day
Basques and Sardinians might provide clues about the spread of early Indo-European
languages in the Mediterranean.
DNA Tribes Digest for March 2, 2013: Bantu Languages and the African Classical Age
This month’s article explores the emergence of new African cultures during the Iron Age, when
the Bantu Migrations reshaped the cultural landscape of Sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic results
include: first, autosomal STR analysis of regional genetic links in Tropical West Africa; and
second, autosomal SNP analysis of the genetic components expressed in present day Bantu
speaking populations throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
DNA Tribes Digest for February 1, 2013: Ramesses III and African Ancestry in the 20th Dynasty of New
This month’s article features a geographical analysis of autosomal DNA from two ancient DNA Tribes Digest for January 2, 2013: Evidence for Early Migrations to Europe from West Asia and
individuals: the pharaoh Ramesses III and another individual (possibly Ramesses III's son
Pentawer), who lived more than 3,000 years ago during the 20th Dynasty of Egypt (during the
Bronze-Iron Age transition).
A previous issue of DNA Tribes® Digest identified African related ancestry for King Tut and other
royal mummies from the Amarna Period. In this issue, results indicate that the later pharaoh
Ramesses III also inherited alleles that are most frequent in present day populations of Sub-
Saharan Africa. This provides additional, independent evidence of Sub-Saharan African
ancestry (possibly among several ancestral components) for pharaonic families of ancient Egypt.
This month’s feature article will explore genetic evidence for the origins of European populations, DNA Tribes Digest for December 1, 2012: Genetic Evidence for Multiple Waves of Migration to the
based on a detailed comparison to neighboring world regions using autosomal STR data.
In particular, this analysis will explore evidence for early migrations to Europe from West Asia
(including Anatolia and the East Mediterranean) and Siberia (including early relatives of Native
Americans). The background section highlights the possible role of mixed populations that
emerged near the Balkan Peninsula during the Neolithic period, which might have included early
speakers of the Indo-European languages that later spread throughout Europe.
Americas (STR and SNP)
This month’s article explores the origins of Native American populations based on autosomal
STR and SNP data. This analysis will include genetic evidence for multiple waves of migration
from Siberia, as well as the role of copper using Mound Builder societies in integrating Paleo-
Indian and Arctic related populations in Eastern North America.
DNA Tribes Digest for November 1, 2012: Genetic Evidence for Two Indo-European Expansion Routes
in Asia (STR and SNP)
This month’s article explores genetic evidence for two routes of West Eurasian expansions into
Asia: (1) Southern expansions through West Asia reaching the Indian Subcontinent (possibly
related to the larger satem group of Indo-European languages in Asia); and (2) Northern
expansions through the Eurasian Steppe into Siberia and the Tarim Basin (possibly related to
the extinct Tocharian languages).
DNA Tribes Digest for October 1, 2012: Genetic Links in Eastern Europe (STR and SNP)
This month feature article explores genetic links in Eastern Europe based on both autosomal
STR and SNP data. The historical background emphasizes the possible role of Copper Age and
Bronze Age agricultural expansions in shaping Eastern European genetic structure. In particular,
the analysis highlights periods of early population growth based on farming and pastoralism, as
well as migrations and dispersals during periods of climate change.
DNA Tribes Digest for September 1, 2012: Genetic Links in the East Mediterranean (STR and SNP)
This month’s article includes genetic analysis of the East Mediterranean (Levant) based on
autosomal STR and SNP data. The historical background highlights two early periods: the
Copper Age and the Bronze Age, when semi-migratory traders and pastoralists carried new
ideas along trade networks linking the Southern Levant and North Euphrates. Migrations during
these periods shaped the Bronze Age populations of Canaan, which became the common
ancestors of later cultures of the East Mediterranean.
DNA Tribes Digest for August 1, 2012: Celtic Language Origins and Geographical Links in Northwest
Europe (SNP and STR)
This month’s article includes a two part genetic analysis of Northwest Europe based on
autosomal SNP and STR data. First, SNP analysis will focus on possible genetic traces of Proto-
Celtic migrations to Western Europe. Second, STR analysis will explore inter-regional links
related to contacts between Celtic speaking populations during the Iron Age.
Announcements: SNP Update for August 2012.
DNA Tribes Digest for July 1, 2012: Genetic Links in the Iberian Peninsula (STR and SNP)
This month’s article explores deeper genetic links in the Iberian Peninsula, including long
distance (and possibly more ancient) links with populations outside of the West Mediterranean.
Results include a discussion of genetic links with North Africa and Southeastern Europe, possibly
related to early Neolithic and Copper Age cultures of the Balkan Peninsula.
DNA Tribes Digest for June 1, 2012: The Indigenous Gran Chaco Region of South America (STR);
Non-Local Components of European Regions (SNP)
This month’s issue features two articles. The first article examines genetic relationships of the
indigenous Gran Chaco region of South America based on autosomal STR data. The
second article includes a multi-layered analysis of European regions based on autosomal SNP
data, to identify long distance genetic relationships underlying the local regional structure of
Europe, the Near East, and South Asia.
DNA Tribes Digest for May 1, 2012: Early Links between Europe and the Caucasus (SNP)
This month’s feature article explores the complex genetic landscape near the Caucasus
Mountains. In the ancient world, this region was associated with the early development of
metallurgy. To illuminate this little studied region, our article discusses early contacts linking the
Caucasus Mountains with Europe and the Near East, based on the archaeologist Evgeny
Chernykh’s analysis of early Eurasian metallurgy during the Copper Age and Bronze Age.
DNA Tribes Digest for April 2, 2012: Genetic Links in the Indus Valley (STR and SNP)
This month’s feature article explores genetic links in the Indus Valley, the location of the Bronze
Age Harappan Civilization. The historical background section includes a discussion of emerging
new models of South Asian prehistory. This new research challenges the traditional academic
theory of a "Vedic invasion" from outside of India, and suggests instead local continuity in South
Asia dating to the expansion of Neolithic cultures from West Asia.
Announcements: SNP Update for Spring 2012.
DNA Tribes® SNP Admixture Results by Population (Updated March 12, 2012)
A comprehensive analysis of world populations based on the continental and regional admixture
components used in DNA Tribes® SNP analysis (separate from 15, 21, and 27 Marker STR
based tests; for STR based analysis, see our Global Survey).
DNA Tribes Digest for March 1, 2012: Genetic Links and Language Expansions in Eastern Africa (STR
This month’s feature article explores genetic links in two parts of Eastern Africa: the Horn of DNA Tribes Digest for February 1, 2012: The North African Region (STR and SNP)
Africa and African Great Lakes. These regions near the Rift Valley and Red Sea are home to
several ethnic groups and have been shaped by several language expansions.
This month’s article explores genetic relationships of North African populations. This includes two
separate analyses (autosomal STR and autosomal SNP), each providing an independent source
of information about genetic links in this part of the world.
DNA Tribes Digest for January 1, 2012: Last of the Amarna Pharaohs: King Tut and His Relatives
This month’s article features an analysis of several mummies, including the famous King Tut and DNA Tribes Digest for December 1, 2011: Armenian Populations of the Transcaucasus (STR and SNP)
his relatives. These individuals lived in a unique time more than three thousand years ago: the
“Amarna period,” which has left a vivid archaeological record of life in pharaonic Egypt.
This month’s feature article explores genetic relationships of Armenian populations of the
Transcaucasus. This will include two separate analyses (autosomal STR and autosomal SNP),
each providing an independent source of information about genetic links in this part of the world.
Announcements: New STR Populations for December 2011
DNA Tribes Digest for November 1, 2011: The Norse Sub-Region (STR); SNP Update
This month’s feature article explores genetic relationships of the Norse sub-region of Europe,
which includes Scandinavian populations of present day Norway, Denmark and Sweden.
Also included with this Digest issue is updated continental and regional admixture analysis based
on new SNP populations incorporated in DNA Tribes® SNP analysis.
DNA Tribes Digest for October 1, 2011: The Salishan Region (STR); Siberia and Central Asia (SNP)
DNA Tribes Digest for September 1, 2011: The Ojibwa Region (STR); Gradual Transitions between
This month’s issue features two articles based on two different types of analysis. The first article,
“STR Analysis of the Salishan Region,” explores genetic relationships of the North American
Pacific Northwest based on autosomal STR data.
The second article, “SNP Analysis of Siberia and Central Asia,” explores possible traces of the
Central Asian Oxus and Tarim Civilizations based on autosomal SNP data.
Europe, the Middle East and North Asia (SNP)
This month’s issue features two articles based on two different types of analysis. The first article, DNA Tribes Digest for August 1, 2011: Genetic Links between Three SNP Based Regions in Europe
“STR Analysis of the Ojibwa World Region,” explores genetic relationships of the Ojibwa world
region based on autosomal STR data.
The second article, “Gradual Transitions between Europe, the Middle East and North Asia,”
highlights the genetic continuity between these continental zones based on our current SNP
This month’s article features a mixture analysis of European populations based on genetic
regions identified by DNA Tribes® SNP as of August 2011. This will highlight the relationships
between three major European genetic groupings (Atlantic European, Baltic-Urals, and
Caucasus-Anatolian) and neighboring parts of the world (such as the North African, Arabian,
and Siberian regions).
Announcements: DNA Tribes® SNP Update for August 2011
DNA Tribes Digest for June 27, 2011: The North Amerindian Genetic Region
This month’s article explores geographical relationships of the North Amerindian genetic region.
This genetic region characterizes indigenous populations living near the Great Plains and
Mississippi River, including tribal nations of the Eastern United States and First Nations living in
neighboring parts of Canada.
Announcements: New Populations for June 2011
DNA Tribes Digest for May 31, 2011: The Athabaskan Region of North America
DNA Tribes Digest for April 29, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Greek Sub-Region
This month’s article explores geographical relationships of the Athabaskan genetic region. This
region characterizes indigenous Navajo and Apache peoples of the Southwestern United States,
as well as linguistically related First Nations of Western Canada and Alaska.
This month's feature article will update our analysis of the Greek sub-region based on more
detailed sub-regional divisions in Europe.
DNA Tribes Digest for March 31, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Germanic Sub-Region
This month’s feature article will update our analysis of the Germanic sub-region based on more
detailed sub-regional divisions in Europe.
DNA Tribes Digest for February 28, 2011: The Horn of Africa World Region
This month’s feature article explores the genetic relationships of populations in the Horn of
Africa. This region includes modern day Sudan and Somalia, located along the early trade
routes linking the civilizations of Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, the Indus Valley, and
Announcements: Introducing DNA Tribes® SNP Analysis.
DNA Tribes Digest for January 31, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Balkan Sub-Region
This month’s feature article updates our analysis of the Balkan sub-region based on more
detailed genetic divisions presently identified by DNA Tribes® Europa analysis.
Announcements: New Populations for January 2011.
DNA Tribes Digest for December 31, 2010: An Updated Analysis of the Portuguese Sub-Region
This month's article updates our analysis of the Portuguese sub-region based on more detailed
genetic divisions within Europe.
DNA Tribes Digest for November 30, 2010: An Updated Analysis of the Italian Sub-Region
DNA Tribes Digest for October 28, 2010: Georgia and the Caucasus Mountains
This month’s feature article will update our analysis of the Italian sub-region based on more
detailed genetic divisions within Europe.
This month’s issue will explore genetic relationships in the Caucasus Mountains, in particular
looking at the nation of Georgia. In ancient times, these mountains divided the urban
civilizations of Southwest Asia from the wilder Eurasian steppes.
DNA Tribes Digest for September 30, 2010: Gallia Belgica: The Belgic Sub-Region of Europe
This month’s feature article will examine the Belgic sub-region, which includes populations of the
modern “Benelux” nations (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) and northern parts of
France, lands sometimes described as the Low Countries.
DNA Tribes Digest for August 31, 2010: A Closer Look at the Celtic Sub-Region of Europe
This month’s feature article will re-examine Celtic genetic relationships based on more detailed
sub-regional definitions in Northwest Europe. This will also include a speculative discussion of
the legendary Danann and Milesian dynasties in relation to Bronze Age archaeology.
Announcements: New Populations for August 2010; New Add-On Options.
DNA Tribes Digest for July 30, 2010: Romani Links to Europe and South Asia
This issue’s feature will explore genetic relationships between Romani (also known as European
Gypsies) and other populations of Europe and Asia.
DNA Tribes Digest for June 30, 2010: Two Magyars: Genetic Contributions to Hungary and Székely
This month’s feature article focuses on two Magyar (Hungarian) populations: the general
population of Hungary and the Székely (Szekler), thought to be descended from Hunnish
warriors that joined with the Magyar military confederation in Europe.
DNA Tribes Digest for May 31, 2010: Kurgan Riddles: The Thracian Sub-Region of Europe
This month’s feature article focuses on the Thracian sub-region of Europe, which shares genetic
characteristics not only with neighboring European regions, but also with more geographically
distant South Asian populations.
Announcements: New 27-Marker Test; New Populations added April 30, 2010.
DNA Tribes Digest for March 31, 2010: Europe, the Near East, and India: Macro Relationships in West
This month's feature article focuses on large scale (macro) relationships between European,
Near Eastern, and South Asian populations. These lands once included the range of the extinct
Neanderthal hominids. Today, West Eurasia is home to a group of related regional populations
that share genetic characteristics, perhaps dating to the earliest human expansions from Africa.
DNA Tribes Digest for February 28, 2010: Shores of the Sahara: Genetic Contributions to the Sahelian
This month’s feature article focuses on the Sahelian genetic region along the borderlands
between the Sahara Desert and tropical forest zone. It was here that many diverse and
influential African cultures have emerged, such as the Mali Empire of Mansa Musa, who awed
Egypt and Arabia with the wealth of his caravan and established of the famous University of
DNA Tribes Digest for January 29, 2010: Footprints of the Indo-Europeans: Basic Genetic
Contributions in Southwest Asia
Individual populations studied include: Turkey (general); Greek (Cyprus); Syria; Eastern
Anatolia, Turkey; Georgia; Kurdish (Iraq); Arab (Iraq); Iran; and Baloch (Pakistan).
DNA Tribes Digest for December 29, 2009: Generals of the Steppes: Basic Genetic Contributions in
Tungusic, Mongolic, and Turkic Populations
Individual populations studied include: Hazara; Uzbek; Kazakh; Uyghur; Altaian-Kizhi; Tuva;
Xiongnu (early Mongolian burial site); Mongolia; Buryat; Khamnigan Mongol; East Mongolian
(Inner Mongolia); and Evenk (Harbin, China).
DNA Tribes Digest for November 30, 2009: Old Siberia: Basic Genetic Contributions in the European
and Siberian Taiga
Forward: The Northern Frontier Lands of Eurasia
Europe and the Urals: Finns, Mari, and Bashkir
Near the Great Yenisei River: Khakas, Tofalar, and Soyot
Newcomers to Far Eastern Siberia: Yakut and Evenki
Summary and Conclusion
DNA Tribes Digest for October 31, 2009: Refuge of Sages and Outlaws: Basic Genetic Contributions
near the Hindu Kush
Individual populations near the Hindu Kush mountain range, including: Afghanistan; Gujarat,
India; Kashmiri Muslims; Northern Pakistan; Pakistan; and Punjab, India.
DNA Tribes Digest for August 29, 2009: Old Europes: Genetic Evidence of Indo-Europeans and
Substrates in the West (Part Two)
Atlantic Megalith Builders: Basque and North African Substrates
Near Eastern Farmers: Mesopotamian and Levantine Substrates
Northern Hunters, Fishers and Herders: Urals, Finnic, and American Indian Substrates
Links to Asia: Indian and Tibetan Substrates
Summary of Contributions
DNA Tribes Digest for July 29, 2009: Old Europes: Genetic Evidence of Indo-Europeans and
Substrates in the West (Part One)
Native Language Families of Europe
Identification of the Central Indo-European (CIE) Genetic Zone
Central Indo-European (CIE) Genetic Contributions in Europe
DNA Tribes Digest for June 27, 2009: Genetic Relationships in Mesoamerica
Seeds of Mesoamerican Civilization: the Mayan Region
Empire of the Aztecs: the Mexican Region
Bridge to the South: the Central American Region
DNA Tribes Digest for May 30, 2009: Genetic Relationships among South American Indians
At the Ends of the Earth: the Patagonian Region
Eden of the Americas: the Amazonian Region
Mountain Backbone of South America: the Andean Region
DNA Tribes Digest for April 30, 2009: Genetic Relationships along the Pacific Rim of Asia
The Japanese Region
The Ami of Taiwan
The Atayal of Taiwan
The Chamoru of Guam
DNA Tribes Digest for March 28, 2009: Genetic Relationships in Southern Europe
Sea of the Hellenes: the Greek Europa Sub-Region
Lands of the Renaissance: the Italian Europa Sub-Region
Refuge of the Iberians: the Spanish Europa Sub-Region
Euskal Herria: the Basque Europa Sub-Region
Beyond the Pillars of Hercules: the Portuguese Europa Sub-Region
DNA Tribes Digest for February 28, 2009: Genetic Relationships in Africa
Kingdom of the Nile: Egypt
Church of Alexandria: Egyptian Copts
Heirs of Kush and Nubia: Sudan
Horn of Africa: Somalia
Lands of the Bantu: the Southern African Genetic Region
Facing the Atlantic: the West African Genetic Region
Place of Sunset: the North African Genetic Region
Oracle of the Pharaohs: Siwa Oasis
DNA Tribes Digest for January 31, 2009: Patterns of Gene Flow through the Coastal Silk Routes
Middle Kingdom: the South Chinese Genetic Region
A Union of Mountain and Sea: the Southeast Asian Genetic Region
The Great Navigators: the Malay Archipelago Genetic Region
At the Edge of East Asia: the Eastern India Genetic Region
Home of the Dravidians: the South India Genetic Region
Desert of the Bedouin: the Arabian Genetic Region
Cradle of Humanity: the East African Genetic Region
DNA Tribes Digest for December 26, 2008: Patterns of Gene Flow through the Inland Silk Routes
Birthplace of the West: the Aegean Genetic Region
Eastern Shores of the Mediterranean: the Levantine Genetic Region
Between the Rivers: the Mesopotamian Genetic Region
Land of the Nobles: the North India Genetic Region
Heirs of the Tocharians: the Uyghur of the Tarim Basin
At the Roof of the World: the Tibetan Genetic Region
All Roads Lead to Cathay: the North Chinese Genetic Region
DNA Tribes Digest for November 28, 2008: Genetic Relationships in Northern Europe
Where Earth Meets Sky: The Altaian Genetic Region
Legacy of the Scythians: The Russian Europa Sub-Region
Western Peoples of the Taiga: The Finno-Ugrian Europa Sub-Region
Birthplace of the Slavs: The Polish Europa Sub-Region
Old Europe: The Balkan Europa Sub-Region
At the Heart of Central Europe: The Germanic Europa Sub-Region
Peoples of the North Sea: The Norse Europa Sub-Region
Isles of the Setting Sun: The Celtic Europa Sub-Region
DNA Tribes Digest for October 25, 2008: The Arctic Connection
Genetic Regions and Language Families of Siberia
Estimated Genetic Contributions to the Arctic Genetic Region
Estimated Arctic Contributions to American Indians
Estimated Genetic Contributions to North American Indians
DNA Tribes Digest for September 27, 2008: Exploring Ancestry in the South Seas
This month's feature article is "Exploring Ancestry in the South Seas," where genetic
relationships in Madagascar, Australia, East Timor, and Polynesia are investigated.
DNA Tribes Digest for August 29, 2008: Who are the Americans?
The first issue's feature article "Who are the Americans?" examines the genetic composition of
Caucasian and African-American populations in the United States and how it relates to global
genetic patterns and the history of North America.
Fifty Canadians from Four Ethnic/Racial Groups: Individuals within every population exhibit a
variety of genetic affiliations. To view world region analysis for fifty individuals drawn from each
of four North American populations, select a link below. Each study is a large PDF approximately
10 MB in size. If a file does not open, right-click the link and select "Save Link As" to save the file
and open on your desktop. (Published May 10, 2007):
Fifty Black Canadians
Fifty Caucasian Canadians
Fifty East Asian Canadians
Fifty East Indian Canadians
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