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Frequently Asked Questions About DNA Tribes® STR Genetic Ancestry Analysis
Updated November 16, 2014. For DNA Tribes® SNP analysis, click here.

Q: Currently DNA Tribes® ancestry testing products are not available for purchase. When will they be
available again?

A: Due to the sudden death of the company co-founder, Lucas Martin, we have temporarily suspended the sale of
our ancestry products. However, we expect to make our products available for purchase again in December, 2014
or January, 2015.

Q: What is DNA Tribes® Genetic Ancestry Analysis?

A: The DNA Tribes® Genetic Ancestry Analysis tests autosomal DNA inherited from both your maternal and paternal
ancestors. Your DNA Tribes® test results identify the individual populations and DNA Tribes® World Regions
where your unique DNA profile is most common, including a detailed comparison of your results to genetic data
from African, Asian-Pacific, European, Middle Eastern, Native American, and South Asian populations. For more
information about our reference database containing over 1,200 populations from around the world,
click here.

Your DNA matches can include populations in line with your recent family genealogy. However, the genetic history
of world populations began long before genealogical records. For this reason, your DNA matches can also express
genetic traces of more ancient links between world populations through shared origins, migrations, and trade.
These ancient genetic links are explored in various archived Digest articles, available
here. Since 2006, DNA
Tribes®, led by Lucas Martin, has performed the most comprehensive analysis of world genetic structure. Our
research and digest articles explore the genetic links among populations around the world, challenging
longstanding scientific and cultural notions on ancestry and identity.

Q: How will my results look?

A: Results are delivered by email in a printable PDF Genetic Ancestry Report. Sample reports with comments can
be viewed
here.


















Q: How does DNA Tribes stands out from other services?

  • Affordability. Our test provides a comprehensive assessment of your genetic ancestry at an affordable
    price. Once the initial testing is performed, specialized add-on panels are available at any time you choose
    to acquire more detailed results.

  • Speedy turn-around times. DNA Tribes® typically delivers results within 2-3 weeks from the time your DNA
    samples are received for processing by the lab. For up-to-date status information about your order, contact
    customer.support@dnatribes.com.

  • Excellent customer service.  If you have any questions about the interpretation of your results, we are
    happy to review your results in detail to answer any questions in the light of your family history or world
    genetic variation.

  • Industry standard markers. DNA Tribes® analysis uses autosomal STR marker systems that have been
    the industry standard relied on by police investigators and courts of law around the world. These powerful
    markers not only provide personal genetic identification virtually unique to each person, but they also
    underlie the DNA Tribes'® proprietary identification of World Genetic Regions.

  • Expert data analysis. DNA Tribes’® proprietary analysis has been conducted and matching algorithms
    developed by Dr. Eduardas Valaitis (Ph.D. in Statistics, Yale University 2005), whose expertise in
    multivariate classification allows us to provide the most detailed and comprehensive regional analysis
    available anywhere. Your DNA Tribes® analysis will incorporate our original research to identify genetic
    relationships around the world.

  • Lots of detail. DNA Tribes® offers the most comprehensive comparison to world populations and regions
    available anywhere due the breadth of our reference database of over 1,200 populations worldwide. DNA
    Tribes® analysis compares your genetic profile to these populations to identify the ethnic groups and
    regions where DNA signatures similar to yours occur most frequently, including detailed likelihood score
    information not available anywhere else.

  • Just the facts. Genetic ancestry is complex and does not always correspond to familiar ways of thinking
    about ancestry. DNA Tribes® results identify all of the populations and regions around the world where DNA
    like yours occurs most frequently. These detailed match results can include locations associated with
    recent family genealogy but can also reflect genetic traces of more ancient links between populations
    through shared origins, trade, and migrations.

Q: How do I get my DNA Tribes® analysis? How long does it take?

A: Learning about your genetic ancestry with DNA Tribes® is straightforward. After you place an order for your DNA
Tribes® analysis online, we will send you a cheek swab kit with easy to follow instructions. Per instructions, you will
scrub the inside of your cheek with the swabs, seal your samples and then mail them in the prepaid return
envelope* to our partner genetic testing lab. Once the lab receives your sample, you will receive your results in
approximately 2 - 3 weeks** by email in a PDF report file.

* Prepaid return envelopes are included for kits shipped within the U.S. only. For kits shipped outside the U.S., an
unpaid return envelope is included for return shipping and it is the responsibility of a customer to pay local postal
rates.
** In most cases, results are delivered within 2-3 calendar weeks from the receipt of the DNA samples by the lab.
However, in some cases, results can take longer if 1) additional processing or cheek swab re-collection (performed
at no additional charge) is needed or 2) you fail to send in the consent form that is required for your DNA sample to
be processed.

Q: How does DNA Tribes® STR testing compare to autosomal tests that use thousands of SNP markers?

A: The primary benefit of STR rather than SNP testing is the availability of rich reference data. DNA Tribes® tests
industry standard autosomal STR systems, which allow the identification of a person's DNA profile not shared with
any other person. Because these STR markers have been tested and used in the court systems around the world,
they allow DNA Tribes® to perform the most thorough comparison of a person's own DNA profile to over 1,200
ethnic groups (populations) around the world. At present, SNP testing does not yet match the geographical detail of
DNA Tribes® autosomal STR analysis.

Q: How many world populations are included in DNA Tribes analysis?

A: DNA Tribes® tests perform a comprehensive comparison of your unique autosomal STR profile to over 1,200
populations sampled around the world. These data have been collected from various peer-reviewed academic
journals and proprietary sources and these population data were verified, aggregated and imputed using cutting
edge statistical algorithms developed by DNA Tribes®. The reference data include native populations on all
inhabited continents, as well as modern mixed communities living around the world. More information about the
ethnic groups in our world database is available at
http://www.dnatribes.com/populations.html

Q: Are DNA Tribes® customer ratings and reviews available?

A: Yes. At DNA Tribes®, our goal is to provide superior genetic analysis that is informative and enjoyable for our
customers. To help us continually improve the quality of our service, DNA Tribes® routinely invites our customers to
submit their ratings and reviews of their testing experiences. Of customers who responded to our survey between
January 2006 and November 2014, over
95% gave a positive rating of their experience with DNA Tribes®.

DNA matches can cross perceived ethnic boundaries and express unexpected genetic links between world
populations.
To get the most of your analysis, we recommend contacting us at customer.support@dnatribes.com
with questions about your testing. We are happy to provide follow up assistance in translating technical results into
plain English terms to help you in your personal genetic ancestry research.

To read customer reviews of their DNA Tribes® experiences, click
here.

Q: Is DNA Tribes® STR test for only males or females?

A: Both males and females can use the DNA Tribes® Genetic Ancestry Analysis. Our test uses autosomal genetic
material inherited both the mother and father (50% from each parent), providing a unique "genetic portrait" that you
will pass on to your children and grandchildren as a record of their family heritage.

Q: How does DNA Tribes® autosomal analysis relate to other forms of genetic analysis, such as Y
chromosome, mtDNA or admixture tests?

A: DNA Tribes® unique autosomal analysis complements other types of genetic tests, by using DNA passed down
equally from male and female ancestors.  More specifically, DNA Tribes® analysis can complement Y
chromosome or mtDNA information by providing information about genetic connections passed down from a
sampling of both lineal non-lineal ancestors, providing a more well-rounded and inclusive picture of a person's
overall ancestry.  DNA Tribes® analysis can complement admixture testing by identifying connections to individual
ethnic groups and regions, providing a more detailed view of ancestry based on both native populations and
modern mixed communities around the world.

Q: What is the scientific basis for DNA Tribes® statistical analysis?

A: DNA Tribes® is a privately held company specializing in genetic ancestry analysis, including both geographical
analysis and classification of world populations and the comparison of individuals to living populations and world
regions identified by DNA Tribes.  DNA Tribes’® proprietary analysis has been developed by Dr. Eduardas Valaitis,
who received his Doctorate in Statistics from Yale University in 2005.  At the time of initial development, Dr. Valaitis
was a tenure-track Assistant Professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at American University in
Washington, D.C.  Dr. Valaitis’ background includes extensive work in multivariate analysis and classification,
which involves identifying mathematical structure present within large and complex datasets.  

This expertise allows DNA Tribes® to perform a uniquely detailed and comprehensive analysis of living world
populations to identify genetic structure on an objective, mathematical basis. DNA Tribes® analysis allows the
genetic relationships linking populations (often crossing perceived ethnic boundaries) to be expressed based on a
thorough and detailed geographical database. All data used in our analysis come from peer-reviewed scientific
studies and proprietary sources of world populations.  

Q: Is DNA Tribes® proprietary method of analysis available elsewhere?

No. Some forensic calculators use the CODIS STR markers used for DNA Tribes® genetic ancestry analysis.
However, these calculators use forensic match calculations that are less appropriate for genetic ancestry analysis.
DNA Tribes® analysis is based on a unique genetic ancestry analysis developed by Dr. Eduardas Valaitis (Ph.D. in
Statistics, Yale University 2005). DNA Tribes® patented genetic ancestry analysis is available exclusively through
DNA Tribes® and is protected by the patent (U.S. PAT. NO. 8,285,486).

Q: What genetic markers are used for DNA Tribes® analysis?

A: DNA Tribes® uses a type of autosomal STR genetic markers developed by the FBI for individual identification.  
Using this system, each person’s DNA profile serves as a genetic fingerprint for that individual, with typically less
than one in a trillion chance of sharing an identical profile with anyone else in the world.  Because each autosomal
STR profile is unique to a person, these genetic markers are also the industry standard for court-admissible
paternity and maternity testing.  DNA Tribes® uses your highly unique autosomal STR genetic profile to measure a
person’s genetic connections to world populations and world regions identified by DNA Tribes®.  

Further information about the DNA markers used for DNA Tribes® analysis can be found at:
http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/

Q: Is the set of autosomal STR markers used in DNA Tribes® analysis sufficient to provide a robust
and detailed genetic ancestry analysis?

Yes. Genetic ancestry analysis requires many data points, consisting of both informative DNA markers and robust
population reference data. DNA Tribes® analysis uses a powerful set of industry standard STR markers relied on
by police agencies and courts of law around the world. DNA Tribes® compares each person's unique set of highly
informative STR markers to our database representing hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. This enables
us to not only identify basic continental groups (e.g., African or European), but to "zoom in" further and perform the
most detailed structural analysis of world populations available to identify individual genetic regions sharing unique
genetic patterns. DNA Tribes® customers receive the most comprehensive and detailed genetic ancestry analysis
currently available based on our STR database of more than 1,200 world populations.

DNA Tribes® 26 Marker Test results include a comprehensive comparison that identifies all World Regions
where your STR profile is shared, as well as how well your STR profile fits among members of each of these
regions.

New but more expensive technologies have allowed testing thousands of SNPs or other markers. However, these
analyses are currently limited by the smaller amount of global DNA reference data. Because of this lack of data, the
global structure of genetic clusters inferred using these SNP markers remains incomplete.

In contrast, DNA Tribes® analysis uses a suite of powerful industry standard STR markers to provide a detailed
and statistically rigorous comparison of your genetic information to 1) over 1,200 ethnic groups in all parts of the
world and 2) regional genetic structure identified a by Dr. Eduardas Valaitis. Our survey of world populations
provides detailed analysis of world genetic structure distinguished using these STR markers:
http://dnatribes.
com/sample-results/dnatribes-global-survey-july2013.pdf.

Q: How does DNA Tribes® testing differ from SNP based searches for distant family relatives?

A: DNA Tribes'® STR test is a "deep ancestry" test that includes a comprehensive comparison of your STR profile to
living populations around the world. Other more limited tests (such as autosomal IBD searches) only locate distant
relatives within the past several generations, but do not fully express the more ancient genetic relationships
between populations through shared origins and migrations that are retained in each part the world.

In contrast, while DNA Tribes® results can include locations associated with recent family genealogy, they can also
express your ancestral relationship to world populations that predate the relatively short period recorded by paper
genealogy.

Q: Can people of European family origins obtain DNA matches with Middle Eastern populations?

A: Yes. DNA Tribes® results locate all world populations where a person's autosomal DNA is shared. Results are
not related to appearance and can express deeper and ancient genetic relationships that cross perceived ethnic
boundaries. Specifically, results for people of European family origins can include DNA matches with Middle
Eastern and, in some rare cases, South Asian or Central Asian populations. These DNA matches can express
genetic traces of shared origins, migrations, and trade contacts linking Europe with neighboring populations of
West Eurasia.

In the context of world genetic structure, European populations are related to both South Asian and Middle Eastern
populations. For instance, the wider context for European ancestry is described in more detail in this past Digest
article:
http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2013-04-02.pdf

These European links with the Middle East are not limited to any individual ethnic group or region of Europe.
Rather, European populations as a whole are related to Middle Eastern populations as a basic feature of world
genetic structure. Genetic differences between European and Middle Eastern regions are comparable to genetic
differences between Siberian and East Asian populations: that is, there are local differences between related
populations that have been linked through shared origins and ongoing contacts throughout prehistory and history.

More information about the genetic links between Europe and the Near East is available at
http://dnatribes.
com/sample-results/dnatribes-global-survey-july2013.pdf (STR) and http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-snp-admixture-
2012-08-01.pdf (SNP).

A more in-depth discussion of European genetic links with neighboring parts of the world, including probable
European origins from ancestral West Asian populations, is included in these Digest articles:
http://dnatribes.
com/dnatribes-digest-2013-01-02.pdf and http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2012-06-01.pdf

Q: Can people with mixed ancestry obtain DNA matches in native populations where similar mixture has taken
place in more ancient periods?

A: Yes. For people with mixed ancestry or ancestry from modern mixed populations, DNA match results will
identify the ethnic groups and world regions where their unique combination of DNA inherited 50% from each
parent can be found. Results will vary based on what genetic material has been inherited, and can identify one or
more places of parental origins or in some cases intermediate populations where similar mixture has taken place.

For instance, people with Latin American ancestry can inherit a mixture of European and Native American alleles
that is similar to more ancient patterns of mixture that have taken place in Eurasian populations (including India).

This is because populations of South Asia (including present day India and neighboring countries) have been a
contact point where European, East Asian and to some degree Near Eastern and African related populations have
mixed since early periods. More information about these genetic links is available in archived Digest articles:

http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2009-01-31.pdf (coastal Silk Routes)
http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2008-12-26.pdf (inland Silk Routes)
http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2010-03-31.pdf (large scale or macro level genetic links in West Eurasia)

For this reason, DNA Tribes® matches are comprehensive and include all populations in our STR database (both
native populations and modern mixed communities around the world) where a person's DNA profile can be found.
If a person's DNA profile can be found both in native populations (such as Europe) and mixed communities (such
as Latin American populations), your DNA match results will include all of the populations in our database where
your combination of STR markers is shared.

Q: Can DNA Tribes® provide information not available through traditional genealogy?

Yes. DNA Tribes® offers a genetic analysis that includes information unavailable to traditional genealogy and can
complement your genealogical research. Genealogy is a type of history documenting biographical information
about lineal ancestors and can identify exact ancestors. However, genealogy cannot identify the specific
genetic connections passed down by these ancestors. This is because genealogy deals with only the means of
DNA transmission and not with the substance itself. The autosomal genetic analysis offered by DNA Tribes® can
complement genealogical research by identifying your genetic connections to living populations passed down by
your ancestors.

For instance, genealogical research might document that a person's grandparents originated in Ireland, Germany
and Italy. However, members of each of these national populations exhibit a range of individual genetic variation
that genealogy cannot identify.
(Detailed analysis of the genetic composition of ethnic groups around the world is
available in our global survey, viewable by clicking
here.) Additionally, family members each inherit a unique
combination of DNA from these grandparents. One grandchild might inherit DNA most typical of Ireland; another,
DNA typical of Italy; and another, a blending of DNA typical of Central European populations living between these  
countries of origin. This is because genealogical "fractions" can only provide non-genetic information about
historical ancestors, which can then be complemented by genetic information measuring the connections to living
populations that each person inherits.  Just as with physical appearance, each person possesses a unique
combination of DNA that exists as a whole with genetic relations to living populations as well as to historical
ancestors.

Q: Do my DNA Tribes® results prove my membership in a certain ethnic group?

Your top matches reflect the populations in our database where your DNA profile is most common.  A match with a
particular ethnic or national population sample does not guarantee that you or a recent ancestor (parent or
grandparent, for instance) are self-identified “members” of that ethnic group.  However, a match does indicate a
population where your combination of ancestry is common, which is most often due to shared ancestry with that
population.  

For instance, an African-American might match populations from Cape Verde (an island nation off the coast of West
Africa) or Belem, Brazil.  Like African-Americans, members of these populations are descendants from a recent
blending of Europeans and Africans.  A Global Population match with either of these populations could be due to a
similar blending of African and European ancestors.  Likewise, a match with a population of Caucasians in Indiana,
U.S.A. does not necessarily indicate your ancestors came from Indiana, U.S.A., but instead indicates that your blend
of genetic ancestry is common within that population.

Nevertheless, DNA Tribes® matches reflect a rigorous statistical comparison of your unique DNA to living
populations as they exist today. Although results do not always relate directly to particular genealogical events, all
match results reflect the genetic relations of individuals to the complex texture of actual world populations. For
instance, a very small fraction of European individuals inherit a DNA profile that is most frequent in India. Indian
affiliation is most common in Roma (Gypsy) populations, but can be also found in non-Roma populations
throughout Europe. (
More details on this topic are available in our global survey of world populations). While this
result does not necessarily indicate a direct ancestor from India such as a great-grandparent, it does reflect the
small but significant overlap between some individuals in European and South Asian populations.

Q: Does DNA Tribes'® STR Test prove identity?  

A: Identity is a complex construct defined by a very personal combination history, geography, and culture. While a
DNA test alone cannot define a person's identity, results from our analysis can provide important clues to your
ancestral origins within major world regions and individual ethnic groups. Alongside genealogical, historical and
cultural information, our analysis can contribute another important piece to the puzzle of your personal identity.

Q: Can test results be used to apply for Native American tribal enrollment or to obtain official Indian status?

A: No. However, DNA Tribes® results can provide genetic clues as to the regions and living tribal populations
where a person's DNA is most common. Because of the strong genetic differences observed between American
Indian populations, test results can provide evidence to assist in the documentary and genealogical research
necessary to establish historical ties to particular Native American tribal nations.

Approximately 1/4 Native American ancestry is generally necessary to identify a regional or tribal genetic affiliation.
The most informative results can be obtained by testing the available relative (of either gender) who is most closely
related to Native American ancestors. Although DNA matches cannot prove tribal ancestry for official purposes,
testing can provide genetic clues to your origins to help locate documentation of descent from an enrolled ancestor
(required for membership by most tribal organizations).

After testing is complete, we can also identify the fractions of Native American ancestry consistent with DNA results
at no additional charge by request to customer.support@dnatribes.com.

For interested tribal enrollment officials, please contact customer.support@dnatribes.com for more information
about how the information in DNA Tribes® results can be interpreted and applied, or for more information about
private group ancestry studies.  

Q: How is ancestry from tribes not listed in DNA Tribes® database (such as ancestry from Cherokee and
other Southeastern tribes) expressed in results?

A: Ancestry from tribal nations not yet listed in our database is expressed in match scores for the nearest genetic
region in Part D of each report. For instance, ancestry from tribal nations of the Southeastern United States such as
the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek (Muskogee) is expressed in match scores for the North Amerindian
genetic World Region. Ancestry from Southeastern tribes can also be expressed in match scores for the Mexican
and Mayan genetic World Regions to reflect ancient migrations from west to east in this part of North America.

Q: DNA Tribes® materials use the terms "Native American" and "American Indian" to describe indigenous
populations of the Americas. How are these terms used?

A: DNA Tribes® uses both terms ("Native American" and "American Indian") inclusively to describe indigenous
peoples living in North, Central, and South America (including native Alaskans). This is because all indigenous
populations throughout the Americas share unique genetic characteristics that distinguish them from other world
populations. More information about these genetic relationships is available in our
Global Survey.

Moreover, DNA Tribes® uses both terms synonymously, because each term remains in use today. The term "Native
American" has become more common in academic texts and other forms of discourse in the United States. DNA
Tribes® uses the term "Native American" inclusively, to reflect the genetic continuity among indigenous populations
throughout the Americas.

In addition, the term "American Indian" also remains in widespread use, particularly among indigenous
communities living in what is sometimes called the "Indian Country" (the parts of the United States where
indigenous cultures thrive to the present day). DNA Tribes® uses the term "American Indian" to emphasize this
living continuity and sovereignty of indigenous peoples, who continue the many traditions of their elders to the
present day.

Q: How do DNA Tribes® match results relate to historical events?

A: Many living populations retain genetic material that dates to their founding in ancient times as well as traces of
more recent events. The genetic patterns identified by DNA Tribes® relate primarily to geography: living ethnic
groups are most often related to their neighbors, sharing common ties to world regions that can cross ethnic and
cultural divisions. Some populations that have migrated from their homelands also retain genetic connections to
their places of origin: for instance, Polish Tatars retain stronger Mongolian genetic signatures than are seen
elsewhere in
Europe.

However, the relation of genetics to historical events presents many difficulties and often requires reference to non-
genetic information. The similarities observed among some neighboring populations of differing language and
culture suggest ancient regional patterns of contact that can predate and outlast ethnic groupings. For instance,
Mediterranean affiliations observed in North Africa, the Levant and Western Europe could reflect historical
influences of Greeks or Romans, but likely also reflect older, enduring contacts that predate those particular
civilizations. DNA Tribes® encourages our customers to explore the historical dimensions of ancestry, and
provides a detailed, empirical genetic analysis for a solid foundation to enable this research.

Q: How are the DNA Tribes® world regions defined?

A: DNA Tribes® is the only genetic ancestry analysis that identifies world regions based on mathematical patterns
of unique genetic variation.  Other tests rely on non-scientific racial divisions.  These presumed racial groupings
present an incorrect and incomplete view of genetic patterns actually present in the world.  Simplistic divisions of
the world into 3-5 continents ignores important unique regions that do not neatly fall into presumed racial
categories, such as such as North Africa, Polynesia or Tibet.

DNA Tribes® analysis does not make any assumptions based on non-scientific racial divisions; instead, DNA
Tribes® defines world regions using objective mathematical criteria.  Many of these world regions correspond to
cultural or linguistic groups.  For instance, Slavic-speaking peoples comprise the majority of populations in Slavic-
Baltic region.  Other world regions cross national and cultural boundaries as they exist today and reflect the genetic
imprint of older patterns of human interactions in these regions.

A map illustrating the world regions identified by our unique mathematical analysis can be viewed by selecting  
Populations.

Q: Why are population matches presented in separate Native and Global rankings?

A: Each person’s ranked population results are divided into Native and Global Population matches.  Native
Population Match results include indigenous populations with minimal admixture in the past 500 years, such as
Native Amazonians, Scottish, Egyptians or Japanese.  Global Population Match results include these indigenous
population and modern Diaspora ethnic groups such as African-Americans, European-Americans or Asian-
Americans. Modern Diaspora populations are descended from immigrants who have relatively recently moved from
their homelands to live around the world, often mixing with other peoples.  

Many people with Diaspora origins obtain their strongest population matches with modern, mixed populations
rather than with non-mixed, indigenous populations.  Population matches are divided between Native and Global to
identify these Diaspora affiliations as well as genetic links to indigenous peoples.  For instance, many African-
Americans match African Diaspora populations such as African-Americans, Afro-Brazilians and related peoples.  
However, their Native Match results indicate roots in indigenous African, and to a lesser degree European or Native
American populations.

Q: What are MLI scores?

A: Each DNA Tribes® Native and Global Population Match and World Region Match is listed with a Match Likelihood
Index (MLI) score that indicates your odds of belonging to that population relative to your odds of belonging to a
generic human population.  For instance, a Native Population Match with Macedonia of 45.2 indicates your
genetic make-up is 45.2 more likely to occur in Macedonia than in a population comprised of completely mixed
individuals.  

Population and world region match results are provided in a ranked listing, from the most to the least likely.  Top
ranked MLI scores indicate your best population or regional matches in the DNA Tribes® database.  All matches
can be compared against each other as odds ratios.  For instance, if you obtain a score of 25.0 for Bavarian and 5.0
for Macedonian populations, this implies your genetic profile is 25.0/5.0 = 5.0 times more likely to be common in
Bavaria than Macedonia.

Q: What are typical scores for my ethnic group? Are my scores very high or low?                        

A: Individuals within each population exhibit a characteristic range of world region scores. This range varies by
world region and ethnicity. For this reason, each MLI score in your population and world region rankings is
assigned a percentile-based TribeScore that expresses how your MLI score fits among members of that population
or region.

Q: What are TribeScores?

TribeScores are a unique scoring method developed by DNA Tribes® that compares person's MLI scores for a
population to the scores of actual members within that ethnic group or region. Each DNA Tribes® match includes a
TribeScore in parentheses, listing your MLI score’s percentile in that population. For instance, results listing
“Switzerland (0.73)” indicate that your MLI score is higher than 73% of scores from this Swiss reference population,
and lower than 27% of these Swiss individuals.  TribeScores of 5% and below are outside of the expected range for
a population, and TribeScores above 25% and above are ordinary or typical for members of that population. In
summary, TribeScores indicate how high or low your score is in the specific context of each population, providing
the necessary point of reference to explain each MLI score.

Q: Can a person of one ethnic group obtain their strongest match with another group or even world region?

A: Yes.  Each population includes a spectrum of gene frequencies.  Within that spectrum, some alleles (genes) will
be typical of that general region, some will be typical of nearby regions, and some might be more unique to that
ethnic group.  

It is common for people to imagine a population in terms of general or distinctive characteristics.  However,
individuals within any population exhibit a range of variation.  While red hair might seem typical of Irish descent, red
hair is only found in a minority of Irish people and can be found in many other populations and even continents.  
The same is true of genetic ancestry.  Some individuals in an ethnic population group might carry alleles (genes)
that are highly typical of that group.  However, all will retain genetic connections to other nearby populations, and
some will retain a primary affiliation with other world regions.

A global survey of world region affiliations within a variety of populations can be viewed by clicking
here. This survey
illustrates the spectrum of regional affiliations for a variety of national and ethnic populations.  DNA Tribes® results
for an individual from that group could include any affiliation represented within that population.  

Q: How can I compare my DNA Tribes results with information from other genetic ancestry tests?

A: DNA Tribes® provides a unique perspective on genetic ancestry by measuring a person’s genetic connections to
individual populations and world regions.  This information can complement results from Y chromosome,
mtDNA or admixture tests to provide a more comprehensive picture of your genetic ancestry.  

DNA Tribes® has several advantages over other types of genetic ancestry test.  More specifically, Y chromosome
and mtDNA tests can indicate the lineage a person has inherited from one direct lineal ancestor (male or female
respectively).  This can be traced through particular genealogical ancestors, providing a direct correspondence with
traditional documentary (paper) genealogy. However, while each person has thousands of lineal ancestors even
within the past 500 years, Y chromosome or mtDNA tests can only provide information about two of these
ancestors.   

SNP Admixture tests usually estimate a person’s contribution from several broad continental groups.  Like our STR
test, admixture tests use genetic material passed down from a sampling of numerous ancestors.  Admixture tests
assume a person is descended from a handful of obvious regions, such as Western Europe and East Asia.  
However, most people in the world are not descended from a mixture of Western Europeans, East Asians, West
Aficans, and Central Americans.  DNA Tribes® analysis measures a person’s genetic connections to over 1,200
populations and 30 world regions providing a thorough coverage of world genetic structure.  Each of these world
regions retains unique characteristics that cannot be described by a basic division of the world into just a few
obvious (continental) divisions.  For instance, North African Berbers are not a mixture of Europeans and West
Africans, but are unique peoples with distinctive genetic characteristics.  DNA Tribes® measures your connections
to important world regions such as Eastern Europe, North India or Northeast Amerindians that can be overlooked
or misclassified by most admixture tests.

In summary, DNA Tribes® can provide information not available from other types of analysis.  This information can
be combined with results from other DNA tests for a more thoroughly detailed picture of your genetic ancestry.

Q: Do my results show what percentage of various groups I am?

A: DNA Tribes'® STR test does not perform an admixture calculation, thus the report does not provide percentages.  
DNA Tribes® produces a statistical likelihood analysis based on actual allele (gene) frequencies scientifically
measured in over 1,200 world population samples.  Admixture estimate can be useful in certain conditions
(especially for medical purposes).  However, admixture analysis requires many assumptions, including the
designation of “non-mixed” populations based primarily on racial groups defined by society.  In reality, no
population is “100% unmixed” or completely isolated from other populations.  Genes can be shared between
populations due to common origins, historical invasions, or slow diffusion by local contact over many generations.  

Our unique method of analysis is informative for anyone from anywhere in the world, because DNA Tribes®
analysis makes no pre-defined assumptions about ancestral groups but instead directly compares your DNA
profile to world populations.  Moreover, instead of estimating admixture, DNA Tribes® measures a person’s genetic
connections to individual populations, thereby identifying the ethnic groups and world regions where a person’s
DNA profile is most common.  For people of multiple origins, DNA Tribes® test results will identify the ethnic
groups and world regions where your unique combination of DNA can be found. Results will vary based on what
genetic material has been inherited, and can identify one of more places of parental origins or in some cases
intermediate populations where similar mixtures have taken place.

Q: Why do DNA Tribes® results identify the populations where a person's DNA profile is most common,
instead of estimating admixture from major racial groups?  

DNA Tribes® analysis is an empirical analysis that identifies a person's best genetic fit among living world
populations. Although admixture analysis is appropriate only in a limited context, DNA Tribes’® unbiased method of
analysis is appropriate for both individuals of mixed and unmixed backgrounds. For people of mixed origins, DNA
Tribes results reflect the genetic material actually passed down from both paternal and maternal ancestors.
However, admixture is only one of several processes that shape human genetic diversity. Although the human
genetic landscape has been influenced by major admixture events (such as the European colonization of Latin
America), this genetic structure also reflects the complex interplay of processes including shared historical origins
of populations, internal processes such as genetic drift, and gradual small-scale gene flow. For this reason, a
simple model of admixture does not explain human variation, and admixture analysis can generate misleading or
incomplete results. DNA Tribes® analysis provides a direct comparison of your DNA to over 1,200 individual
populations, reflecting the full genetic complexity of living populations.

Q: How can DNA Tribes® identify Native American ancestry?  

A: DNA Tribes® can identify Native American ancestry through a match with a particular Native American population
or a with a Native American world region.  DNA Tribes® currently includes a number of Native American tribal
populations in our database.  A listing of these populations can be found
here.

Additionally, DNA Tribes® distinguishes a number of major Native American world regions.  A listing of these with a
map can be found by selecting
Populations.

A distinct world region called Metis-Mestizo, identified by DNA Tribes, includes a recent mixture of Native Americans
with Europeans and Africans.  For many people of mixed ancestry with a substantial Native American component,
the Metis-Mestizo world region will be their strongest World Region Match.  This can often be corroborated by a
substantial (match score greater than 1.0) match with another Native American world region.

The Native American regions identified by DNA Tribes® analysis are highly distinct from European and African
world regions.  For this reason, customers with distant Native American ancestors are unlikely to obtain a
substantial Native American match in their population or world region results.  In such cases, a Native American
Panel (see below for more information on add-on panels) can identify Native American populations that are closets
to the customer’s DNA.  A DNA Tribes® Fact Sheet about DNA testing and American Indian ancestry research and
enrollment can be downloaded
here.

Q: What are the DNA Tribes® Native American Panel and African Panel?  

A: For some customers of partial African or Native American descent, matches from another world region (for
example, Northwest Europe) can dominate their Native and Global Population Match results, reflecting their
predominant ancestry.  The DNA Tribes® African and Native American Panels are supplementary ranked listings of
a person’s match scores for indigenous populations from a particular World Region (African Panel contains Sub-
Saharan African populations; Native American panel contains Native American populations).  

As an example, a person of African and European descent might inherit strong genetic signals from Europe
resulting in mostly European Top Native Match results, without an indication of genetic roots in indigenous African
populations.  African Panel results provide a supplementary ranked list of a person’s matches with all indigenous
Sub-Saharan African populations, including those that do not appear in Top 20 Native Population Match results.  

Likewise, a person of European and Native American descent might inherit strong genetic signals from Europe
resulting in mostly European Top Native Match results, without an indication of affiliations with Native American
populations.  Native American Panel results provide a supplementary ranked list of a person’s matches with all
unmixed Native American populations, including those that do not appear in Top 20 Native Population Match
results.  

As with all individual population matches, African or Native American Panel results measure a person’s genetic
connections to individual ethnic and national populations.  Match scores from each panel can be directly compared
to that person’s Top Native and Global Population Match results.  Additional DNA testing is not required for these
supplementary reports.  African or Native American Panels can be ordered together with a person’s testing kit or
any time afterwards.

Q: Do DNA Tribes® results correspond to physical appearance?

A: Our analysis uses neutral genetic markers not associated with physical appearance.  Neutral genetic markers
are locations within a person’s DNA not associated with phenotype (appearance) and not subject to natural
selection. For instance, a person might have light hair and eye pigmentation while still retaining some neutral
genetic links to Middle Eastern populations.

Q: Do DNA Tribes® results indicate any medical conditions?

A: No.  DNA Tribes® is a genetic ancestry analysis not related to any medical conditions.

Q: Are my DNA Tribes® test results used strictly for DNA Tribes® geographical analysis, instead of being
collected for pharmaceutical research?

A: Yes. Your DNA Tribes® lab results are used strictly for your personal geographical ancestry analysis and for
internal research and development of DNA Tribes® geographical analysis. The price of your DNA Tribes® test
reflects the real costs of lab testing, with no secondary uses for medical research or reselling of your data to third
parties.

DNA Tribes® respects your right to choose how your genetic data are collected and used. DNA Tribes® will never
ask you any questions about your health or private medical history, and your DNA Tribes® data will never be used
for pharmaceutical research and development or otherwise sold or shared with any third parties.

Q: I have already obtained my autosomal STR profile from a previous DNA test.  Do I qualify for an STR
Analysis Only?

A: The autosomal STR marker systems used in DNA Tribes® Genetic Ancestry Analysis are standard forensic
markers also used for paternity/maternity and other forensic DNA testing.  The markers needed for an Analysis Only
are: D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX,  
FGA, Penta D, and Penta E. Additional markers that can be included (optional) are: D2S1338, D19S433, F13A1,
F13B, FES/FPS, LPL, D10S1248, D12S391, D1S1656, D22S1045, D2S441, and SE33

If you already have these markers from a previous genetic test, you can order an STR Analysis Only without the
need for further DNA processing.  STR Analysis Only orders can be placed through our secure online checkout
system at:
http://dnatribes.com/order_addons.html.

When placing your Analysis Only order, email your autosomal STR profile to
support@dnatribes.com.

Q: What is the DNA Tribes® privacy policy?

A: DNA Tribes® is committed to the highest standards of genetic confidentiality and anonymity. DNA Tribes® does
not rent, sell, or share personal information about you with other people or companies.

Q: How can I send payment by check or money order?

A: Orders can be placed through our secure online storefront only, allowing us to provide your genetic ancestry
analysis more quickly and securely.  

Q: Where do I mail my DNA sample?

A: Once you have collected your DNA sample using our easy cheek swab collection kit, please return it to our
partner laboratory using the return envelope enclosed with your kit.  If your return envelope has been lost or
damaged, please contact DNA Tribes® customer support at customer.support@dnatribes.com.

Q: DNA Tribes® does not yet include my ancestral population.  Would DNA Tribes® test be informative in my
case?

A: DNA Tribes® is continually expanding our population database to be as comprehensive as possible.  However,
for customers whose ethnic group is not yet included in our database, DNA Tribes® results will identify the nearest
populations and regions in our database where your genetic ancestry is best represented.  If we are later able to
include your ancestral population in our database, you can simply order an update for your analysis to reflect this
new data without further DNA testing.

Q: I am interested in contacting DNA Tribes regarding an article or media appearance.  Whom can I contact?

A: Please direct media inquiries to customer.support@dnatribes.com.  

Our Mission at DNA Tribes is to bring you maximum information using cutting edge science at an affordable price.
For
merchant information, including shipping information and return policy, click here.

For
further inquiries, please fill out our Customer Feedback form.

To
order your own DNA Tribes Personal Genetic Analysis, simply order online, and we'll send your cheek swab
kit right away.
All materials copyright ©
2006-2014 DNA Tribes.
DNA Tribes®. What's
Your Tribe?®. DNA Tribes
patented analysis is
available exclusively from
DNA Tribes. U.S. PAT. NO.
8,285,486. All rights
reserved. All satellite
images courtesy NASA
Earth Observatory.